While Western sports have developed in a way that eliminates violence, why do athletes in the sports activities in Japanese schools accept corporal punishment from their seniors and leaders? This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of sports-oriented students' habitus in Japan, by using the theory and method of Pierre Bourdieu. The findings are as follows.
Nearly 42% of college students in Japan identify themselves as sports-oriented; this is a large proportion of the total, as well as the “otaku” (similar to “nerd”) type. The habitus of sports-oriented students is characterized by the division of gender roles, the supremacy of victory, the authoritarian personality and the strong aspiration to higher status.
In their first year of sports activities, participants are forced to undertake all the chores, no matter how unreasonable. But in their second year and afterwards, they can then force the younger participants, in turn, to do all the chores. In this way, they learn about habitus that is subordinate to authority. At the same time, the older members' desire to dominate is satisfied, while the younger members are controlled and dominated. Thus, Japanese sports clubs reproduce cultures of dominance and obedience accompanied by unreasonableness and violence. This is the Japanese type of sports-oriented habitus, which has its origins in the traditional Japanese military culture.
School sports activities are creating a masculine identity that strives for victory in a contradictory way: by embedding subordinate habitus and at the same time preserving their desire for control. There are three types of rewards that explain why athletes are so submissive in their sports activities.
The mentality of Japanese athletes was developed under the fear of control and sanctions, and it is different from self-directionality in the Western sense. Therefore, in places other than sports, they often break the rules. With little experience outside of sports, they interact with homogeneous members, tend to have synchronous values with external authority and have limited or no knowledge of other values.
This article aims to examine the types of social research used in the sociology of sport from the perspective of triangulation. I reviewed 74 articles published in the Japan Journal of Sport Sociology issued in 2000 or later and discussed the future outlook of research in the sociology of sport based on the social research on exercise and sports practice from the viewpoint of lifelong sport. Articles in the Japan Journal of Sport Sociology since 2000 have focused on contemporary thought, cultural studies, and historical analysis. The most commonly used method was literature research(43.2%), followed by interview research(36.5%) and document analysis(20.3%). Qualitative research has been continuously used since 2000. Particularly in the last five years, fieldwork and participant observation often tend to be combined with an interview survey, while a questionnaire survey has not been used since Goto’s 2010 article. Nationwide social research on exercise and sports practice was carried out several times in Japan, as a result of which an overview of exercise and sports and leisure has been becoming clear. Showing change in survey results over time, the data obtained from the research is valuable. However, incorporating the data in a qualitative survey, such as unsymbolized events, as survey items may make it possible to find people alienated from today’s system for practicing lifelong sport.
The purpose of this research is to examine the long-term impact of hosting a mega-sport event on national pride. Although previous research has discussed the impact of hosting a mega-sport event on national pride, none have empirically examined their long-term effects.
It is expected that the Japanese who experienced hosting the Olympic Games in Tokyo 1964, and Sapporo 1972, have stronger national pride because these Games implied Japanese reconstruction after World War Ⅱ and a return to the international community.
This study examined the group effect of national pride using a quantitative analysis of social survey data. However, results showed that the cohort who experienced the Olympic Games in Tokyo 1964 or Sapporo 1972, showed a lower score of sport-related national pride, as well as statistically insignificant effects on general national pride.
The nationalistic symbols in the Olympic Games have faded due to their gradual commercialization. Thus, those who experienced the Olympic Games in Tokyo 1964 and Sapporo 1972, with strong implications for the rise of national prestige, may not feel national pride in sports today. Alternatively, researchers imply that the younger generation has increased sport-related national pride due to the prevalence of anxiety in Japanese society since the 1990s. Thus, it is observed that the older generation who experienced the Tokyo and Sapporo Games may have relatively weaker national pride. The results of this research indicate that further investigation of the cohort effect on sport-related national pride is needed.
Raising the awareness that people with intellectual disabilities can actively participate in sports, even if they have problems with decision-making or communicating their will, remains a challenge for sports promotion in Japan. This study seeks solutions from the standpoint of social constructivism and aims to define a theory for elucidating the “physical experiences” of people with intellectual disabilities whose decision-making involves others. That is, we explore a theory based on conventional “body theory,” pursue theoretical limitations, and discuss new possibilities.
We first raise the issue of how the “physical experiences” of people with intellectual disabilities in sports become invisible to society from the perspective of social political constructivism. Phenomenological body theory assumes that the mind-body dichotomy is the heart of the theory of experience in disability studies and sport sociology; however, there are theoretical limitations to understanding the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities. Instead, we focus on a “physics theory” that overcomes such theoretical limitations, use hints from the “undetermined existence” of the human [Gehlen, 1993, 2008] that lies behind that theory, and discuss new possibilities from the standpoint of social political constructivism. Finally, as a complement to physics theory, we focus on the “intercorporeal chain” [Osawa, 1996] in comparative sociology, noting the new potential theoretical frameworks necessary for discussing “physical experiences” that include others through sports.