The purpose of this research is to examine the long-term impact of hosting a mega-sport event on national pride. Although previous research has discussed the impact of hosting a mega-sport event on national pride, none have empirically examined their long-term effects.
It is expected that the Japanese who experienced hosting the Olympic Games in Tokyo 1964, and Sapporo 1972, have stronger national pride because these Games implied Japanese reconstruction after World War Ⅱ and a return to the international community.
This study examined the group effect of national pride using a quantitative analysis of social survey data. However, results showed that the cohort who experienced the Olympic Games in Tokyo 1964 or Sapporo 1972, showed a lower score of sport-related national pride, as well as statistically insignificant effects on general national pride.
The nationalistic symbols in the Olympic Games have faded due to their gradual commercialization. Thus, those who experienced the Olympic Games in Tokyo 1964 and Sapporo 1972, with strong implications for the rise of national prestige, may not feel national pride in sports today. Alternatively, researchers imply that the younger generation has increased sport-related national pride due to the prevalence of anxiety in Japanese society since the 1990s. Thus, it is observed that the older generation who experienced the Tokyo and Sapporo Games may have relatively weaker national pride. The results of this research indicate that further investigation of the cohort effect on sport-related national pride is needed.
Raising the awareness that people with intellectual disabilities can actively participate in sports, even if they have problems with decision-making or communicating their will, remains a challenge for sports promotion in Japan. This study seeks solutions from the standpoint of social constructivism and aims to define a theory for elucidating the “physical experiences” of people with intellectual disabilities whose decision-making involves others. That is, we explore a theory based on conventional “body theory,” pursue theoretical limitations, and discuss new possibilities.
We first raise the issue of how the “physical experiences” of people with intellectual disabilities in sports become invisible to society from the perspective of social political constructivism. Phenomenological body theory assumes that the mind-body dichotomy is the heart of the theory of experience in disability studies and sport sociology; however, there are theoretical limitations to understanding the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities. Instead, we focus on a “physics theory” that overcomes such theoretical limitations, use hints from the “undetermined existence” of the human [Gehlen, 1993, 2008] that lies behind that theory, and discuss new possibilities from the standpoint of social political constructivism. Finally, as a complement to physics theory, we focus on the “intercorporeal chain” [Osawa, 1996] in comparative sociology, noting the new potential theoretical frameworks necessary for discussing “physical experiences” that include others through sports.