The Olympic Games have rationally changed to adapt to the media and business environment since the 1980s, even though this has been criticized as ‘commercialism’, in order to help sustain the Olympic Games. Therefore, for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, many companies became sponsors in accordance with the domestic situation, and in the newspaper category, several newspapers signed on as sponsors as well.
This paper summarizes the recent changes in the relationship between the Olympics, the media, and sponsors, and then discusses problems of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. Additionally, through text mining analysis, editorial articles from sponsor and non-sponsor newspapers are compared to examine the topics and discourses of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.
The results show that although the editorials of the sponsor and non-sponsor newspapers referred to the same topics regarding the Olympics, there were differences in their points of view and discourse. In the non-sponsor newspapers, the issues of ‘infection’ and ‘reconstruction’ were discussed as being directly related to the Olympics, while in the sponsor newspapers, these issues were separated from the Olympics and discussed as events outside the Olympics.
In addition, the issue of newspaper sponsorship was not mentioned in any of the editorials and was only mentioned a few times in general articles as an issue raised by outside individuals. Thus, the newspapers' reporting on sponsorship followed popular sentiment, and the sponsor newspapers in particular had a more ambiguous status of journalistic independence.
This study aims to examine the characteristics of sports spectators. Previous studies have discussed social characteristics such as household income, educational attainment, occupation, and gender in relation to cultural consumption. In this study, based on the theory of the relationship between cultural consumption and social stratification and gender, the characteristics of sport spectators were examined. Secondary data from the Sports Life Data 2018 were used to examine the relationship between these latent factors and social characteristics through latent class model analysis. The results showed the following. First, the following five types of sports spectators were identified: the high tolerant class, which watched many sports comprehensively; middle tolerant class, which watched various sports but was less tolerant than the high tolerant class; baseball univores class, which watched baseball intensively; event univores class, which only watched sporting events of high social interest; and inactive, which was reluctant to
watch sports. The motivations behind watching sports differed, as the high tolerant class was subject to preferences toward sports, while the middle tolerant class, characteristic of women with more cultural capital, may have manifested as multiple differentiation strategies. Moreover, two types of univores were identified: those who consumed baseball in a univore-like way, and those who consumed only events that attracted passive interest, although their interest in sports was low. In conclusion, this study clarified some of the characteristics of sports spectators. Finally, the limitations and future directions of this research were discussed.