Japan Journal of Sport Sociology
Online ISSN : 2185-8691
Print ISSN : 0919-2751
ISSN-L : 0919-2751
Volume 15
Displaying 1-10 of 10 articles from this issue
  • Rethinking the Historical Meaning of the “Tokyo Olympic Games” in the Second Round
    Takashi MACHIMURA
    2007 Volume 15 Pages 3-16
    Published: March 20, 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In 2006, Tokyo Metropolitan Government officially started a bidding campaign for 2016 Olympic Games. Why now, and why in Tokyo? Spectacular events such as Olympic Games or EXPO currently play a role of an instant dream in post-industrial cities of the globalization era. These are rediscovered as a means of “Driving the Dream” in a globalizing economy. Hosting those events is important. Yet, in this context, processes in which both private and public sectors are cooperated and mobilized toward the event and, consequently, an existing urban regime is restructured into a more competitive one, are more important. These facts, as well as sweeping nationalism after September 11, explain, to a certain extent, the reason why top-ranked global cities, such as London, New York, Paris, and Tokyo, started a bid for Olympic Game again after a long interval. “Mega-event” politics of local government now provide a new arena in which various actors are competing each other for presenting urban agenda suitable for a more neo-liberal form of the city. Yet, current official statements on the 2016 Tokyo Olympic Games are not successful in creating a new economic and cultural discourse to mobilize civic initiatives and to legitimate its own standpoint. Consequences of mega-event politics will have to be reconsidered on the basis of Tokyo's ongoing experiences
    Download PDF (3786K)
  • Media, Capital and World Cup Madness in Korean Society
    Heejoon CHUNG, [in Japanese]
    2007 Volume 15 Pages 17-24
    Published: March 20, 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    This paper examines some of the tremendous sociopolitical effects of the 2002 FIFA World Cup on Korean society, and considers the 2006 tournament in light of those influences.
    The 2002 World Cup tournament had, paradoxically, both conservative and progressive influences. The success of the Korean national team, and the support that it generated was a decisive factor in the birth of a progressive government in Korea, which had long been ruled by authoritarianism and patriarchal conservatism. The World Cup integrated a South Korea fragmented by divisions of class, region and gender. It did so, however, by exploiting nationalism. The frenzy brought about by the Korean national team's success was seen by some intellectuals as a sign of fascism. The Red Devil phenomenon was typified by blind patriotism, distorted nationalism, political indifference, and the repression of individual subjectivity to mob psychology. In addition, many socially and politically important events that occurred during the tournament were forgotten or ignored by the media.
    In contrast, the 2006 World Cup provided the Korean people with a different experience. Unlike 2002, when the country got wilder as the national team continued to win, in 2006 the problems started months before the tournament began. In particular, blanket coverage by commercial television stations deprived viewers of their right to choose programming. The triple alliance of media, capital and sport requires much future research.
    Download PDF (1063K)
  • The Classification System as a Constitutive Rule and the Creation of “Fascinatingness”
    Tadashi WATARI
    2007 Volume 15 Pages 25-38
    Published: March 20, 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Focusing on Player Classification System, this study shows how the rules can create “uniqueness” and “fascinatingness” of Wheelchair Basketball. Rules impose the specific condition on each sport. The condition creates a distinctive “fascinatingness” for each sport. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the rules to understand the “fascinatingness” and “uniqueness” of the sport.
    As in other modern sports, Wheelchair Basketball has its own “constitutive rule.” This means that wheelchair basketball is not considered as a viable sport alternative. The classification system in Wheelchair Basketball is a part of the “constitutive rule.” Players are assigned classification from 1.0 through 4.5. This classification is the players' “playing points” and at any given time in a game the five players on court must not exceed a total of 14 “playing points.”
    By having a system of player classification, players can convert impairment into athletic ability. Also, what is important is that wheelchair is considered to be a part of player. Even though each individual has different body size, the rule-specified wheelchair has the “stable width.” Having distinctive features in the “constitutive rules, ” especially the classification system and the “stable width” of wheelchair, players and coaches can create distinctive tactics. In other words, the rules are constitutive requirements to create the distinctive “fascinatingness” as well as being the basic premise of its own “uniqueness” for Wheelchair Basketball.
    Download PDF (2049K)
  • The Removal of Tian Liang from the Chinese National Team
    Shoki OH
    2007 Volume 15 Pages 39-51
    Published: March 20, 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chinese Olympic diving champion Tian Liang, one of the most outstanding national athletes, was ejected from the national team because he was engaged into too many commercial activities without consent from the authorities.
    Tian Liang was trained in the system of China National Sports Administration, which has been practicing for decades to boost national prestige with the possibility of winning medals.
    On the other hand, as China becomes more open from the reform and the process of globalization, the sports market is opening and the sports economy is growing. The Chinese authorities send its Olympic champions on the market to measure the value and the cost in comparison with the international level. But at the same time the authorities also demand the champions to keep loyal to their country and attribute all their achievements to the party and the people.
    Tian Liang has become a popular sport star who can play a significant role in the new commercial system of sports. The transformation of his image between the new and the traditional was unavoidable.
    This research paper reviews the development of the sport system since the founding of new China and analyzes why Tian Liang was ejected from the national team. In addition, according to the press, some issues on the future of China sport system reform are explained from a sociological perspective in this research.
    Download PDF (3599K)
  • Kazunori MATSUMURA
    2007 Volume 15 Pages 52-54
    Published: March 20, 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (439K)
  • A Revised Analysis of the Relation Between Urban Space and Spectator Sports
    Tetsuo NISHIYAMA
    2007 Volume 15 Pages 55-69
    Published: March 20, 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this article is to make a proposal on a multi-dimensional space model for perceiving present decentred reality, in exchange for an organic society model. Further, I would like to revise the meaning of spectator sports for the present urban population.
    For both of these two purposes, the following two axes are crucial.
    1. the progress of the virtualization of reality and the fragmentation of personality (or the advent of the self which is composed of a contingent assemblage of inter-subjective roles) owing to the development of information technology, in opposition to the desire for authenticity and integrated identity.
    2. the reinforcement of consumer culture and individualism because of the globalization of economy, in opposition to yearning for commitment and community.
    Each of these two axes is formed out of two dimensions. Present urban space is divided into these four dimensions and, at the same time, supported by the interrelationship among these four, which occurs as a result of a multi-dimensional bypass. It seems to be appropriate for the topological construction (or movement) of this interrelationship to use a metaphor of Klein bottle, because an expressive action can easily be connected with an inverse effect in its field.
    This paper will depict the present formation of urban space by means of the analysis of the spectators' praxis, which simulates the mechanism mentioned above.
    Download PDF (2223K)
  • Kennosuke TANAKA
    2007 Volume 15 Pages 71-85
    Published: March 20, 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    This article concerns the social world of youth subcultures in contemporary Japan by bringing into the social exclusion theory. By examining “structurally embedded inequalities, ” which tend to be disregarded in post-subcultural theory, this study develops a conc eptual and practical view of the social contexts in which the everyday lives of youth subcultures are created. In paticular, this paper attempts to bridge the cultural perspective of post-subcultural theory and the structural approach of social exclusion theory.
    First, this approach treats the socially excluded youth not as a group of the new poor, but as a new ontological agency of social actors produced as a consequence of social stratification. Second, it brings into focus the epistemological turn from socio-political social exclusion to sociological social exclusion. Third, this research shows that the social exclusion as a process is not only forcibly created by structural factors in the global context, but also reproduced through the everyday practices of the local social reality.
    The ethnographical data I have been conducting since 2001 demonstrates the life histories of three young males in a group of skateboarders who gathered at the West Gate Park of the Tsuchiura Station. For them, participation in subcultural activities is not only a form of escape but a means of overcoming the stagnation they experience by making use of subcultural capital they have accumulated in their own bodies.
    Download PDF (2297K)
  • From an Ethnographic Report on a Boxing Gym and Squatter's Life in Metro Manila, Philippines
    Tomonori ISHIOKA
    2007 Volume 15 Pages 87-102
    Published: March 20, 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In existent studies, there are three sociological perspectives for capturing the relationship between poverty and sport: 1) sport as ‘opium’, 2) sport as an ‘arena for class struggle’ and 3) sport as a vehicle to create ‘open cultural space’. These three perspectives contain the presupposition that sport is a meaningful practice as long as it gives the poor opportunity for civic participation.
    This study, which exemplifies how one boxing gym in Metro Manila creates a ‘buffer’ (Wacquant) for the boxers to survive their severe everyday lives, presents a different viewpoint which takes sport practice as a life strategy of the poor. This study tries to grasp pugilistic sense by re-constructing “the boxer's points of view” and discusses how an important social space is produced in the boxing gym.
    From ethnographic descriptions, we utter the pugilists practice boxing to sustain the life of their families. Hence this study presents another perspective, which is that the poor take part in sports in order to keep their lives. Such a perspective makes it possible to rupture the existing paradigm of sociological study on sport in socio-economically poor societies.
    Download PDF (2310K)
  • 2007 Volume 15 Pages 136b
    Published: 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (154K)
  • 2007 Volume 15 Pages 136a
    Published: 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (154K)
feedback
Top