The purpose of this paper is to examine the phenomenon —becoming stiffen— as the key practice for thinking reflexively about “the researching body”. I reconsider my research experiences of the discrimination problems and demonstrate two cases of the phenomenon. In one case, though I got nervous and tense, I was positively involved in trying to communicate to the informants in the “Now and Here” of the research setting. In the other case, in spite of getting nervous and tense, I tried to keep the “good” role of the situation but failed to communicate it to them. Both cases are closely connected with the problem of categorization, which is an important topic of the ethnomethodological sociology. In fieldwork we researchers are not machines that objectively collect date and do not influence the informants and the field. To think reflexively and examine “the researching body” is very important and interesting. We should not discuss this only on the level of research methodology. We can totally reconsider and reconstruct our sociological practices by watching closely our researching bodies.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of anti-modernism for sport-spectators in sport as festival. Anti-modernism is defined as a mechanism about a production of one's new standpoint from inter-bodily performance. Sport in modern society as festivity is a devise that brings a large quantity of bodies into excitement. The body experience of sport-spectators must relate with their political imagination. Post-modern Society composed of nation-states continues to be an imagined political community that is produced through magico-religious anti-modernism-experience in festival against the currents of globalization. Any identity (e. g. nationality) is given to bodies with transcendental choice for them. Nobody can choose their subjectivities and their world-horizon on their own responsibility. Main results are as follows; 1) Excitement in festival delivers a norm about nationality into body of sport-spectators through their inter-bodily chain. The norm cuts off their utterance about aliens in their bodies at times. 2) It is considered that World Cup Soccer in France '98 re-organizes the French-nationality through the biggest impact of immigrant-players. Excitement in the games re-writes the norm about nationality in their bodies. 3) We have norms that distinguish between “we” and “they” with deep bodily realistic feeling of authenticity. We live in Space-Time organized by the norms. When the excitement in Festival renews a world-horizon, it creates another type of discrimination.
Csikszentmihalyi names “geido” of Sado (tea ceremony) and Kyudo (Japanese archery) as examples of Japanese traditional cultural activities in which a “flow” state can be assumed to come about. However, almost no study has been carried out on the “flow” experience in Japanese traditional bodily arts. The objective of this paper is to clarify the features of the “flow” experience in Japanese traditional bodily arts, which is called “Hana, ” “Mushin, ” “Mushin-Mune, ” or “Muga”. The analysis is based on comparing with the flow experience in sports, and by making use of “affordance” theory and Borgmann's views on “commanding reality” vs “disposable reality.” According to the model of the “flow” state devised by Csikszentmihalyi, the state of flow is felt when the actor's capacity is in balance with opportunities for action. However, as Csikszentmihalyi himself is aware, “flow” experience has a paradoxical aspect; when actors are in deep flow, they perceive both an ability to control the environment and a feeling that seems to make the sense of control irrelevant. On the other hand, in Japanese “geido, ” what is aimed at from the beginning is, not the control over the environment, but the state in which the sense of control disappears. The significance of such features of “geido” will be grasped more clearly in terms of “affordance” theory which has thematized the “coupling of perception and action” and Borgmann's notion of “commanding reality” which has thrown light on the reality's recalcitrant aspects which require active involvements from human beings. In brief, some forms of Japanese “geido, ” which seek the state of so-called “mushin, ” or “muga, ” consist in the training process of waiting single-mindedly for the advent of the “flow” state, namely, the ideal coupling relationship between the acting body and the environment, while paying minute attention to what reality commands and offers as possibilities for action.
The most difficult part of description about the body and its physical experience is linking the two, for although, one is obviously affected by one's experience, one is never completely determined by that experience. It is a fact that, therefore, description of lived experiences about the body has being neglected. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe the previous process of contemporary dance performance focusing the relationship between choreographer and dancer by using methodology of reflexive description, and in doing so, to clarify the sociality of the body. (1) the movement is being created through the interaction both of choreographer and dancer by using the choreographer's word as medium. (2) by the created movement is ground into dancer as moving automatically, dancing body appears as various possibility of expression. Dancer's movement includes the image of choreographer, the motif by moving, and the image that is based on dancer's own experiences. Then, the body in a lived relationship between choreographer and dancer refuses to remain in a static meaning. And such a state has been kept in the process of becoming. The process of becoming like this could be thoght of as one function of sociality of the body. This paper will be expanding the agenda of the theories of the body.
The purpose of this study is to explore athletic sports clubs within academe from a sociohistorical perspective. In the middle of the Meiji Era, students of upper-class schools who were expected to become the elite played sports originally. Rowing in particular was the most popular sport. The Imperial University was the center of rowing. Therefore, uncovering the significance of rowing is very important to understand the entire sports culture in Japan. Viewed from the cultural reproduction theory, this study shows the rowing practices of the students in Imperial University as follows. First, rowing activity was interpreted as a symbolical conflict concerning “cultural legitimacy” to acquire distinctive cultural capital and physical capital. As a result, it acted on the new class reproduction. Second, as a result of enthusiasm for sports or barbarism, the losing process of symbolic power in athletic sports clubs was shown. As mentioned above, this study finally aims to create a joint theory of “sports cultures” from the fields of sport sociology and history.
It has been documented in previous studies that involvement in physical activity has physical, social and psychological benefits for the elderly, but a large proportion of whom are physically inactive. Recently, social supports and social networks are drawing public attention, in order to increase participant for physical activity. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of social supports and social networks on physical activity involvement among the elderly. Data for this study were obtained from 304 visitors over 60 years of age in 3 facilities in Fujisawa city in Kanagawa Prefecture. Data were analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. As a result, the following points were clarified. 1) Social supports for involvement in physical activity by the elderly consisted 4 factors. Not only human support has been used until now but also informational support, support concerning facilities, as well as programs and support in the access to all. 2) Females were much more active than males in the size and interaction within social networks. 3) Informational support factor had a direct and significant influence on physical activity involvement of active female elderly. 4) The frequency of interaction with other persons in social networks significantly and directly influenced involvement in physical activity in both male and female. 5) Health awareness in males, and age, health awareness and informational support factor in females for interactions within their social networks significantly impacted the frequency of contacts, which revealed a gender difference. The present results suggest that future study should pay attention to developing criteria to assess social support and social network functions specific to the level of physical activity in which the elderly engage, in order to encourage their participation more effectively.
The purpose of this study is to reconsider independent action of local residents, which should take into considerations the social structure, the power struggle, and the person to person relationship by the case study of Cheju-Island in Korea. Person to person relationship breakdown had been long lived and was exacerbated by the national policy to develop golf courses on the Island. Local government and residents had no power to decide to the matter or stop the execution. Under these circumstances, most residents participated in the environment movement not from personal profit but out of local tradition for the preservation of the natural spring water without which the area is sure to perish. As for the environment movement of residents, it is local tradition based on living norms of a local society that is a efficient in understanding as their own forces in opposition to national power structures. The independent activity of residents originated in the necessity to protect their own lives. By examining this topic, the absence of any consideration of national policy by endogenous development theory is shown by this case study. And endogenous development theory is the solution in part of endogenous development theory's own problems. Additionally, the participation of the youth group members in the soccer clubs has been an important reason for the development and recreation of social relations since they are their main and most active members of the society and the consideration of the regional nature.
The purpose of this research is to examine the aim and value that sports careers have in the Korean society and how it accepts them. This research is based on interviews of former top class Korean athletes. According to the results (1) Before turning South Korean sports into a world power, it was originally a physical education scholarship system to increase the level of the results of the student-athletes. The system met the expectations of both the South Korean society and its educational intentions. (2) Even with a weaker academic record the person's game record could insure his life until his graduation from the university under the scholarship system. However only the person's game record during his university years and after could insure his life and status in society after retirement, if he wins an Olympic or world title for example. The students who do not expect to achieve such success should think strategically about their future after retirement. Therefore, it is important for the government and the people related to sports to find ways to support all career athletes entering the society after retirement.