In China, the consumption of marine products has increased. In particular, there is a huge boom in consumption of the various expensive marine products including sea-cucumber and other products. This has led to an increase in demand for the expensive marine products. Meanwhile, a lot of companies have broken into the aquaculture, processing and selling these expensive marine products to meet the high demand of these expensive marine products.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the factor that causes market expansion of these expensive marine products with a focus on the case study of the sea-cucumber processing companies in Dalian in China.
Some large-scale sea-cucumber processing companies have increased production and create the oligopolistic situation of the processed sea-cucumbers market. Other processing companies have had a comparative advantage in the quality of products and sales method in order to increase competitiveness. As a result, these companies faced stiff competition in the processed sea-cucumber market. Under the circumstances, some sea-cucumber processing companies have shifted to producing high value products to meet an emerging demand.
It was found from above analysis that the production of processed sea-cucumbers increased and the products became diversified, which is driven by the lively activity of the companies. Moreover, this research shows each processing companies cultivate a market for creating new demands and this behavior of enterprises contribute to significantly expanding the consuming market of processed sea-cucumbers.
In China, the industrial activity of little clam fishing has passed through about 20 years from the middle of 1980s to 2008. Meanwhile, the little clam industry in the coastal zone of Yellow Sea and Bohai bay has greatly changed. There were many contractors involved in little clam fishery and other related industries. The risk of disaster was there, and there was also a risk of market conduct such as financing and place-of-production competition. The problems of culture technology such as lack of young clam and fishery management exist in it, and there are also places of socially un-equipped fully such as fishery policy finance and fishery accident compensation. Reorganization of the industrial structure of little clam fishing has taken place due to the severe situation currently worn by the disaster which occurred frequently.
The paper introduces and analyses first the evolution, actuality and current problems of the summer closed fishing season system in China. The summer closed fishing season system is formally actualized in 1995. Till 1999, all waters of China is managed by the very system, and forbade fishing gears and time are changed only since this year. During summer closed fishing season of 2005, 120 thousands of fishing vessel and one million fishermen were prohibited to undertake fishing activities in Chinese waters. The paper gives the detail arrangement of the waters, fishing gears and time of summer closed fishing season system. The paper also analyses the characteristics of Chinese marine fishing industry such as complicated fishery resources, huge fishing labor force and special fishing organization system and why there is a huge transaction cost in the course of undertaking the summer closed fishing season system. Finally, in the paper the authors discuss how to construct an effective fishing cooperative organization for reducing the administrational cost and improving the economic efficiency of summer closed fishing season system.
This paper discusses the evolution of conflicts and conflict management in Indonesian marine fisheries since the 1970’s. Literature study combined with a case study of marine fisheries at the southern coast of Cilacap, Central Java Province, provides the main data sources for analyzing the issues. The modernization program through trawl introduction in the early 1970’s has fueled violent conflicts in this period. The conflicts forced the government to reevaluate its policy and prohibit the operation of trawls from 1980 to the present. The lack of law enforcement and the overarching of the modernization programs made the trawl ban short-lived. Since the 1990s, conflicts have emerged in a variety of types with complex root causes.
A case study of Cilacap shows fishery conflicts can be classified into three groups: (1) direct actor conflicts including issues of fishing gear, inequality of access to fishery resources, and migration; (2) intermediate actor conflicts including conflict due to suspicions of buyer intrigue in determining fish price, accusations of self-promotion by leaders of fisheries organizations, and fisheries development policy; and (3) indirect actor conflicts such as conflict with navigation and polluters. The study also verified that the declining of fishery resources, degradation of marine ecosystem, continued growth of the number of fishing vessels, high competition over ocean spaces, and the lack of enforcement of laws were likely the main factors behind the conflicts. Due to the complex root causes of the problems, fisheries management cannot rely only on technical or coercive approaches, but must take into account the heterogeneous interests and social structure of the communities using the resources.
As a result of cooperative research by the Fisheries Development Office and Onna Village Fishery Research Group, MOZUKU seaweed was first cultured in Okinawa in 1977. The output gradually increased thereafter, and in 1999 it exceeded 20000 tons for the first time. At present, over 99% of Japan’s output from MOZUKU culture comes from the Okinawa Sea area.
However, the culture is not strictly controlled, and there is a marked year-to-year variation in production owing to strong changes in such factors as hydrographic and meteorological conditions. A retrospective investigation of hydrographic and meteorological conditions could therefore help us to predict, to some extent, future changes in production.
To determine whether this could be done, we performed a multiple regression analysis by taking output as a purpose variable and making such factors as precipitation and hours of sunshine explanatory variables. We investigated the 20 years from 1987 to 2006, assuming that the area of the fishery grounds under culture did not change greatly over this time.
We were able to obtain a biregressive Okinawa MOZUKU culture to some extent can. However, the MOZUKU culture area in the Okinawa Sea has recently expanded rapidly. Because our regression equation was based on the premise that the area under culture did not change, there is a risk that the method will not be applicable in future. For this reason, the methods used to predict the output from MOZUKU culture and set strategic production goals will need to be examined continually in future.