In recent years, the excessive use of marine resources and the increasing of demand of marine products are advancing on worldwide scale. It has a great hope for the sea aquaculture in order to the maintaining of fishery production and the stable supply of marine products.
However, is it possible to pull up the quantity of production (2013) of the sea aquaculture which forms 33% of the fishery total output in Japan by about 50 percent of global average levels?
For that purpose, there is the necessity of checking again the present condition and the historical developmental process of sea aquaculture. It is necessary to research to the future directivity from there.
Although such big development that the sea aquaculture production in Japan exceeds 1,400,000 tons of the second half of the 1980s from the about 300,000-ton scale of the 1960s was accomplished, many subjects are still held in the developmental process.
In the present stage, at least, three problems exist; it is about the competition problem of use of fishing ground, the problem of coexistence and adjustment between large-scale manager and small-scale family management, the problem of the improvement about management of aquaculture farm operator.
Unless these essential three problems are solved, the further development of sea aquaculture cannot expectable.
In this paper, it is the aim that we analyze about the problems of sea aquaculture business from the viewpoint of area management.
This study examined the significance and the possibility of fishermen or Fisheries Cooperative being engaged in a large-scale aquaculture, through an example of Kamisaki-ura in Minamiise-cho.
Our interview revealed that Bluefin Mie, a first bluefin tuna culture company established by Fisheries Cooperative, indirectly, but not directly contributes to the local fishery through purchasing seeds, paying the culture ground fee and strengthening the competitive power against private companies
Questionnaire and choice experiment to red seabream farmers suggested there is low probability for small firms to upsize through sharing boats or establishing a joint company in Kamisaki-ura. It has to be preceded by the partial cooperation such as sales activity and standardization of a finishing process.
This paper is a case study on Yusu fishing village in Uwajima-city, in Ehime prefecture, and it have been attained the expansion of work opportunities with the sea culture business of red sea breams, and the small-scale management which based family labor power has been maintained in this fishing village.
As everyone knows, in Yusu fishing village, the joint management of sardine net fishing business declined in 1960, many work opportunities for fishermen were lost.
After that, the culture of pearl and yellow tail for fiahermen were introduced under powerful leadership of fishermen’s cooperative association taking advantage of such “the crisis of collapse of fishing village economy”, many fishermen have carried on these culture.
However, after the fall of yellowtail price in 1979, the introduction of red sea bream culture have spread out in Western Japan, because of the price level of red sea bream was 2,000 yen which was remarkable expensive in those days, and it had power of resistance to fish disease.
But, many fishing villages did not always change “the whole fishing village” like Mie Prefecture from yellowtails culture into red sea bream culture. Although the half of fishes culture management became the management which mainly culture on red sea bream in 1994, large number of managements which culfured another kind of fish except red sea bream have kept up. And even the present, quantitatively, many managements have cultured yellowtail.
The greatest feature in the aquaculture of Yusu fishing village is attaining the control of fishing ground and the stabilization of management based on fishing plan.
And it is important that the price negotiation by farmers on the farmed fish sale and purchase of feed are performed. Namely, the farmer’s independency is kept up in this village.
The following point is important as conditions in which the area management by the above fishermen’s cooperative associations is possible.
1st, it is that the egalitarianism which is the traditional community principle has been continuing. 2nd, it is that the purpose of culture management does not aim at company profits, and has become it with reservation of income.
3rd, it is that various functions which the fishermen’s cooperative association has support culture management.
The cause of the depression of fish farming in Japan is the price problem. It will be necessary to discuss about the new administration style of fish farming from a viewpoint of modern global market system.
The essential function of fish farming is stabilization in quantity and quality. Then, farmed fish has got great popularity and become low price commodity. Modern fish farming industry must try to produce lots of fish to reduce production cost. It also must have good channel to the international market to sell them.
In the real cases researched, to have the channel to the international market is the important key of success. It must pay enough attention to the local community around it but it must be a global industry now.