Mass-caught pelagic fish stocks (Sardine, Anchovy etc) have large fluctuations called “dominant species alternation”. The boat seine fisheries mainly target anchovy larvae and juveniles Shirasu in Wadajima area of Tokushima Prefecture. Fishing units in this area process Shirasu to Chirimen by themselves. When the level of summer-autumn spawning type anchovy stock was high, massive investment in their processing equipment was made, but recently their managements are pressed due to that the level of stock is low. The fisheries management organization has carried out suspension of fishing and enlargement of the mesh size as cooperative measures. Equality in the management types between constituent members of the fisheries management organization makes cooperative management easier. Meanwhile, there is concern that cooperative management at the fisheries which utilize fluctuated stocks deprives type of management diversity and makes it difficult to utilize other stocks.
The purpose of this paper is to predict a future of Korea’s cultured flatfish trade with Japan through investigating the trend and present condition of live fish export.
As Korea has sharply reduced the export of marine products, its export to Japan, the largest importer of the Korean marine products, is also decreasing. Although frozen marine products exported toward Japan have decreased, exports of highly valued products such as cold-storage products and live fish have been increased. Especially, the export of flatfish has increased at an annual growth rate of 20% or more for the last one decade. It is Jejudo region that contributes greatly to a sharp rise of the export of cultured flatfish to Japan. The total volume of flatfish exports to Japan reached to 5,549 tons in 2005, of which Jejudo region amounted to 5,307 tons, accounting for 95.6% of the total export.
This paper tries to identify the reasons why Korea has successfully increased the export of flatfish to Japan. The export competitiveness of the Korean cultured flatfish has a natural environment advantageous to culture, geographical contiguity with Japan etc. It is expected that future Korean flatfish production will be slightly increased than now. Meanwhile, flatfish production in Japan is predicted to be maintained at the same level as or a little lower level than the present. Korean flatfish export to Japan may increase slightly after a period. The main factors to cause increase or decrease in export to Japan are a change of exchange rate of Korean won and Chinese production trend.
Compare to Korea, Chinese seaweed products entered the Japanese market later. But export volume expanded rapidly in the last two decades. In 1996, China exceeded Korea in seaweedexport and the Chinese seaweed has accounted for more than 50% market share in Japan.
There has been a debate that the competitive advantage of Chinese fishery industry is from the cheaper labor. In Chinese seaweed industry, this is also true to some degree. In this report, it discusses the organizing mechanism of the Chinese seaweed from internal organization structure and the relationship between the industrial production chain and the competency of seaweed companies.
From the perspective of industrial operating chain, this report investigates the operating status, organizing, system and regulations of the Chinese seaweed export industry. The investigation focuses on the city -Dalian, which is one of the main seaweed production bases in China. The companies included in this investigation are state-owned enterprises, collective enterprises, limited enterprises and foreign companies. Through study these four types of enterprises, this report tries to find out the fact of organizing and the source of competitive advantage.
The investigation results can be summarized as follows: 1. the contracting system and the separation of ownership and management were introduced into the state-owned enterprises in 1984 when the reform policy started; 2. due to the share system experiment and implementation, the employees’ activity and productivity have been improved; 3. the majority of manufacturing materials and equipments are mainly imported from Japan, so the integration of growing seaweed and manufacturing is the unique character of Chinese seaweed companies and industry; 4. for the foreign company, due to the limitation of use of the sea area, the raw material is provided by local seaweed growing plants, so the production chain is like a networks comprised by domestic and foreign companies.
In a conclusion, the competitive advantage of Chinese seaweed export industry relies not only on the cheaper labor costs, but also on the integration of modern organizing mechanism and advanced manufacturing technology. Actually, this is the key reason for the improved competency of Chinese seaweed industry.
Recently, the volume of red sea breams’ imports in Korea from Japan has been remarkably increasing. At the same time, its domestic production in Korea shows a rapid increase. This paper has two objectives. The first objective is to identify important factors responsible for increasing trade and production of cultured red sea breams, while the second one is to make a prediction on future development of live fish imports from Japan. Recent trends of production and trade of cultured red sea breams in Korea and Japan is analyzed. Factors affecting the changes in the amount of trade are described through comparative studies on culture environment in Korea and Japan. The main factors to cause a rapid change in the volume of Korean red sea breams’ imports include an ever-increasing volume of domestic consumption and a highly appreciated Korean Won against Japanese Yen.
In the Philippines, community-based coastal resource management (CBRM) has evolved into a new ear of development. Under the legitimate framework of Fisheries Code 1998 and Local Government Code 1991, local government unit (LGU) holds a greater responsibility for aquatic resource management in municipal territorial waters. With the decentralization of fisheries management, fisheries and aquatic resource management councils (FARMCs) are anticipated to work effectively at barangay (village) and municipal/ city levels, through people's and resource users' greater participation in the decision-making process of coastal resource management. Their past practices and experiences on CBRM activities provide a profound insight into the organization and activity of FARMCs. In the meantime, local government units have created their own institutional framework of FARMCs to fit in with local reality of fisheries management and resource utilization. In the Banate Bay, Panay Island, four municipalities join together to organize a resource management council to have function over its whole area in which fishers utilize common resources. Banate Bay Resource Management Council, Inc. (BBRMCI) was established in 1996, as a type of cross-municipal FARMC. Sharing responsibility with local government units, BBRMCI functions as a management body of coastal resource management in registration, licensing, planning, and zoning. It also acts as a monitoring, controlling and surveillance (MCS) in collaboration with government agencies. Four municipalities entrust some parts of administrative works on fisheries resource management to BBRMCI, by allocating operation funds and dispatching staff. People have positive views towards the BBRMCI’s activities. Illegal fishing is reduced in number. Destructive fishing gears have been replaced by resource-friendly ones. Providing alternative livelihood projects may be helpful to fishers, to avoid increasing in excessive catch effort. It is widely acknowledged that BBRMCI’s experiences bring a viable model on a far wider area of coastal waters.
It is always difficult to organize small-scale fishers because they are small scale in management and operate their activities individually. Small-scale fishers organizing strategy i.e. establishing fishermen’s cooperative societies by eliminating fish merchants has possibilities as well as risks in fishing villages where the relationships between fishers and fish merchants are basic social component. This is because activities of fishermen’s cooperative society often compete with fish merchants’.
This paper reconsiders small-scale fishers organizing strategy which are believed to be almost only a way to attain small-scale fishers self-reliance by cutting off fish merchant controls. As one of alternatives to promote small-scale fishers self-reliance by organizing them to face against fish merchants, possibilities small-scale fishers can face against fish merchants individually by strengthening household basis are discussed through the case study observed at fishing villages in Senegal, West Africa.
Fish merchants have been increasing number of small-scale fishers under their control in Senegal without any appropriate measures for their organizing strategy. Under such circumstances, there exist senior partners in fisher’s households called pecheur mareyeur in certain fishing villages. They are the one who obtains profits by selling fishery products of several fishing boats under their management to fish merchants with quota of certain fish processing companies. They keep authority to sell fish products of several fishing boats under their family or clan as senior partners in independent fisher’s households, becoming main actors to maintain big family household unity, and attaining roles of protection against fish merchant’s control.
The promoting measure of small-scale fishers going into business, as one of alternatives to promote small-scale fishers self-reliance, has possibility to balance profit sharing between fish producers and merchants, without any risk induced by competing relationship between them, because it is not necessary to eliminate fish merchants with the same measure.
Fishery is considered the primary disturbing factor to coral reefs in Southeast Asia. Blast fishing, cyanide fishing, reeffish aquaculture, trap fishing, live reeffish trade and coral culture are said to be harmful to the eco-system. However, there seems too critical tendency for reef fisheries and aquaculture, without knowing quantitative mechanism of the eco-system destruction and recovery process. In this paper, these fisheries and aquaculture in Indonesia, the Philippines, Hong Kong and Okinawa are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable fishery. There are many cases that these fisheries and aquaculture conflict with the eco-system. The blast and cyanide fisheries need strict enforcement because they seem, qualitatively, indeed destructive and would drive away traditional fisheries. In Okinawa, blast fishing was terminated in four months with concentrated enforcement. Coral bleaching, crown-of-thorns starfish and soil run-off have been disturbing the eco-system more than the fisheries. These experiences in Okinawa are useful for the Southeast Asian countries. We need to evaluate the quantitative impact to the eco-system by the fisheries and aquaculture, and balance the fishery and the ecosystem conservation.
The present situation of the Japanese Fisheries can be said that it is going to escape from price competition and cost-cutting competition which have already reached the limit and is turning towards the way that enhances its competitiveness by quality competition. Although considerable attention that being paid to branding strategy on fishery products for its being one of the most effective market countermeasures, there is very little theoretical and positive research accumulation involving it. Accordingly, we took up an example from TOSASHIMIZU fishery cooperation in KOCHI prefecture, where “SHIMIZU SABA” Brand has successfully been established since 1991, to offer the know-how of fishery products brand by analyzing its actual condition and the strategy of the brand marketing.
As a fish brand, “SHIMIZU SABA” brand has been given several characteristics such as those that fishery cooperation has a right of price determination, the prices being formed in predominance from other mackerel, a exclusive distribution channel has been built through the channel management, and above all more important than the other is that a fixed demand market has been formed by producing its brand royalty. As fundamental conditions for “SHIMIZU SABA”’s success, having clarified the differentiation point, having established the organization that acts as a leader, having obtained the cooperators from the outside and having received various support etc. have been raised. Furthermore, what has also been verified in this paper is that choosing an appropriate 4P strategy and making an appropriate marketing mix and branding system in accordance with the actual situation is the more effective way of the successful brand strategy.
Green consumption of marine product in Japan is, as part of citizen movements, categorized into two groups by its purpose; one is to deter public works that would bring about environmental destruction, such as a dam or a nuclear power plant project, and the other is to support environmentally sound production mainly by domestic fishermen, in order not only to encourage the fishermen but also to vitalize domestic fisheries and to increase the rate of self-sufficiency of seafood supply of Japan. Accordingly, a “green” marine product can be defined as a marine product of which production pursues particular social meanings to change the society to sustainable one, needless to say that its Processes and Production Methods (PPM) have negligible negative impacts on environment and human health. Obstacles for dissemination of such green marine products include their relatively high prices due to various reasons, traceability, and information disclosure.
The purpose of this paper is to raise the food and nutrition education concept in the fisheries field taking the approach of “a fishery and a meal” as the food self-sufficiency ratio in the present-day Japan fall. In particular a fish detached building of Japanese people, division, and “a fish detached building of a child” are pointed out.
In this paper, the new concept of fish dietary education” aiming at practical use of the local characteristic or local resources is explained. Although the rough concept was already raised, it adds to a concept called the conventional “fish eating.” 魚触 (study of the experience of being able to touch and cooking training of the fish directly) ～魚色 (study about original fish information such as kind of fish and its nutrition) ～魚職 (study which gets to know production / distribution area of the fishery) ～魚殖 (it is aquaculture of production / distribution area of the fish in the shining fishing) ～魚飾 (study of traditional fish culture such as New Year’s lobster decoration or a celebration sea bream) are also described. The study focused on five study processes including to in order to improve “fish eating” culture. Furthermore, its supposes that ～魚植 (study about environmental problems, such as fishermen’s forest activity / afforestation activities) ～魚織 (local organization on performing fish dietary education” “are newly added issues in this paper. Therefore, in carrying out the fish dietary education” as a new food and nutrition education concept in the fisheries field, seven study processes and one organization function must be defined. Finally, fish dietary education” is what contributes to secure and safe supply of a marine products. It is necessary to have a long-term vision as one means of “relations whose face is visible” construction, and continuation is important.
Fish is an important source of animal protein, foreign exchange earnings and employment generation in Bangladesh. But fish production was declining rapidly before 1990s. Therefore government of Bangladesh imported fast growing exotic fishes and Pangus is one of popular exotic catfish which imported from Thailand since 1990s. Vhaluka and Trishal sub-district were selected purposively for this study because those two sub-districts were popular for Pangas fish farming. Fifty data were collected for the study of which 25 from Vhaluka sub-district and 25 from Trishal sub-district and thirty data were collected for rice farming. Data were collected during May to June 2005. In this study Pangus farming was compared with rice farming. So, this study revealed that average average gross profit of Pangus farming was thirty times higher than that of rice farming. It’s means gross profit ratio of Pangus fish farming is quite high compared to that of rice farming. The high profitability of Pangus farming shown here was the impact for the introduction of Pangus fish into this area. All farmers agreed that Pangas farming was profitable business and it contributed poverty alleviation, socio-economic and infrastructure development in the region though they had some problems such as lack of institutional credit, lack of scientific culture method, insufficient training etc and they also believed that they could produce more fish by improving pond management, using more inputs and better seed and acquiring further knowledge of fish farming by participating training program and discuss with other farmers and fisheries specialist.
The tsunami struck fishing villages along the Andaman coast on 26 December 2004. People have lost their productive assets and business facilities. Several sources of donor agencies and the government have supported large amounts of funds through the channels of community-based organization (CBO). With people’s participation in CBO, they will know well in their community problem and making-decision to solve problem by themselves. Microfinance is a kind of activity to help the affected people by making them access to financial source. The study has observed the community-based organizations in Khao Thong sub-district and Ao Luk Noi subdistrict in Krabi province. In Khao Thong sub-district, CARE foundation program is the main sources to provide revolving fund activity to members. Most of them need credit to recover their assets that were damaged by tsunami. In Ao Luk Noi sub-district, family members, especially women, are encouraged in handicrafts with batik-making. Helping women gain confidence and self-esteem will assist women to take control of their own lives and decrease their vulnerability in times of crisis.