In this paper, the business action of the small/medium scale suppliers attracts attention. The characteristics of the competition for the cultured-tuna related business and the process of the reorganization about it are reviewed.
The Japan’s import volume of the cultured tuna has increased by about 48 times in recent 10 years. It reached 35,700 tons in 2005. In this process, also the competition stage of the cultured tuna related business has changed remarkably. Since the middle of the 1990s, the trading companies and such as them has joined import business in positive and the small/medium scale suppliers have been forced for the handling share to reduce. In this decade, the small/medium scale suppliers have been able to secure their negotiation field in finding the broker business (such as an agent business between producers and importers).
However, entering in the 2000s, the trading companies and such as them got to begin their direct dealings with the producers (i.e. the tuna cultivators) aiming at the wining of the import and domestic sales share. The small/medium scale suppliers became more forced for their business to reduce by such behavior. That is, the oligopoly composition which is due to the majors taking the lead became clear.
The change of business of the Inc.-D which is in the small/medium scale can review the change of competition stage mentioned above. The characteristics of D’s survival measure are as follows. (1)“Promotion of the global vertical integration to the production stage which contains a merger.” This is the one to have aimed at the securing of competitiveness to the other companies/the rivals in addition to the expansion of the own import volume. (2)“Build of a global vertical marketing system.” This is because that (1) is done for the reduction of the transaction cost and the reinforcement of sales compatible.
Considering these two above, as for the characteristics, a conclusion is that the now-going horizontal competition is prompting for the vertical cooperation and the relation change among the companies having to do with the today’s competition and the reorganization concerning the cultured tuna business.
As one of the most feasible culturing fish, Tilapia is recommended by FAO to the whole world. Nowadays, it has been cultivated in 98 countries/regions including Asia, South America, Africa etc.
Groping for a long time, Culturing Tilapia in China had been finally industrialized in 1980s, and rapidly got on the right path after 1990s. At present, China become not only the most Tilapia production country, but also holding the first place of exporting and consuming in the world. Therefore, the purpose of this study is reviewing the development process of Tilapia culturing industry, and working out the problems it concerned.
China’s Tilapia culturing, in the expansion of consumption in international and domestic market, and under the guidance of leading policy from government, is now developing widely in the whole country, in where, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan province are the leading areas. However, recently, Tilapia culturing is facing many complicated problems such as improving of industrialized operating; reinforcement of organizing and corresponding; strengthening of competitive power; expansion of exporting market and enhancing of processing capability. We will work on these subjects and the characteristics of Tilapia culturing industry and hope it will accelerate the industry’s expansion and development.
Black rockfish has been cultivated since the dawn of the Korean aquaculture industry and is regarded as an important species as it has accounted for 41% of the cultured fish production in Korea for the past ten years. Moreover. about 70% of all fish farmers cultivate black rockfish as the main fish stock in their aquaculture business. The volume of cultured black rockfish is more than 20,000 tons every year. The objective of this paper is to clarify the structural change of the Korean aquaculture industry by referring to a change in the volume of production of cultured black rockfish across different production areas. Concretely, six major production areas in Korea, including Tongyong and Yeosu, have been examined as regards their trends of production of black rockfish. Considering production environment and management realities, each aquaculture production area has its own density of fish releasing and period of culture. Six major production areas can be divided into three types. The first type is the production area with high density and short-term culture. The second type is the production area with low density and long-term culture, and the last is the type without stable density culture and term culture.
This paper analyzes how these three different production types have changed the volume of cultured fish production in response to newly-appeared consumption trend in their major markets. The changing processes of six major production areas have been discussed referring to production environment, business management, profitability of aquaculture, and consumption trends.
In Thailand and Malaysia, production of sea bass, snapper, and grouper by fishcage culture is traditionally greater than production by fishpond culture. In Thailand, fishcage culture has been developing with the introduction of sea bass culture using hatchery fry since the 1980s. In Malaysia, fishcage culture developed with the introduction of Thai sea bass culture technology, and production of cultured fish increased due to the use of hatchery fry of snapper and grouper. In the Philippines, fishpond culture was dominant in milkfish and grouper production, but fishcage culture was introduced in the 1990s.
The price of grouper remained at a mid-level after 1998 in Thailand, but increased after 2000 in Malaysia. This is because in Thailand, mainly local medium-class wild grouper fry are cultured, while Malaysia cultures imported high-class hatchery grouper fry.
As for the average ratio of production of the three species, that of sea bass decreased by half, snapper remained approximately the same, and grouper doubled. In terms of average profit, sea bass culture and grouper culture decreased, and snapper culture remained almost the same. Snapper is the most profitable of the three species in Malaysia.
Fishcages allow a higher production yield than fishponds and do not need such a high capital investment as for constructing ponds. In addition, they allow operators to culture grouper of high commercial value at high rates of productivity. Fishcage culture is clearly more profitable than fishpond culture.
Hetu fishing is a type of coastal whaling which has operated since the beginning of the Meiji era, in the area now known as Nago, located within the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. Hetu fishermen hunt small cetaceans such as pilot whales and bottlenose dolphins, and meat from this fishery was distributed within Nago area and consumed by the local population before the international moratorium on commercial whaling. Since the moratorium however, the majority of whale meat caught in the district has been used to supplement the supply in the Japanese mainland. As a consequence, the supply of whale meat to the Nago region has been significantly reduced. Indeed, the total allowable whale catch for the whole of the Okinawa prefecture has decreased since 2006.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationships between whale resources and local societies, as well as to examine the changes in the use of whale resources in Nago.
The purpose of this study is to examine the details on production and trade of capelin consumed by humans and to compare the activity feature between related countries and the position on distribution caused by the difference of quality.
Large demands and positive eating practices do not exist in capelin producing countries. Therefore, most of edible capelin is positioned and utilized as an item to be produced and manufactured for export purposes from the outset. Production and trade for edible capelin begins by selecting female capelin for export purpose to Japan, highest in sales, then processed and traded. Therefore, activities of the Japanese market are relatively infiuential and considered important.
As for the evaluation and demand by Japanese processors on capelin produced in respective countries, basically, capelin from Norway which has a good balance in size, shape, content rate of roe and degree of fat is the highest. If the catch of Norway is poor or banned, Japanese traders try to fill collecting by Icelandic capelin, which is the second highest position in trading. Regarding the features, capelin produced in NF is put in a disadvantage position. The difference of each feature is reflected on the item standard of “hoshi-shishamo”, namely packing quantity and method, the distribution channel and cost.
The demand for fish and fishery products is growing and exporters are changing their markets to achieve higher profit margins through diversification. This paper investigates the extent to which seafood products have been diversified in the absence of government safety nets and challenges from rivals. It examines past events and future issues based on a combination of secondary data analysis, literature reviews and interviews with key individuals in the industry. Seafood export figures from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives and Sri Lanka are analyzed for the years 2000-2003 to determine the degree to which seafood producers have sought to diversify operations following the loss of market share and significant challenges within the global market. The results of Herfindhal diversity index reveal that the degree of seafood product diversification for the South Asian region as a whole improved slightly from 0.36 in 2000 to 0.27 in 2003. India and Sri Lanka have a more diversified product range compared with Bangladesh and Pakistan. Meanwhile, seafood production in Maldives is still geared towards the more specific production of tuna products. The dynamic nature of the international seafood market can be expected to produce a variety of country level adjustments rather than a single response by all producers in the South Asian region.
Thai fishery industries were heavily damaged by the Tsunami disaster in December 2004. Both marine capture fisheries and aquaculture have so far struggled with huge loss and damage of people’s livelihoods. This paper had two objectives. The first was to assess the effects of the Tsunami disaster on fishers’ activities (both in value and in non-value aspects). The second was to investigate how resource users and local people keep the sustainability of coastal resource management after the crisis. The Tsunami affected fishing communities in terms of fishers’ income and their activities on coastal resource management. The fishers were likely to try to earn money as much and fast as they could, by increasing their catch effort. They caught all sizes of fish, including small-sized or juvenile fishes. Meanwhile, in a positive way, local people realized that they should increase effort to conserve and transplant mangrove trees to expand nursery grounds of fishes and to protect from tidal waters. As fast as the fishers can relieve from critical situation, especially economic crisis, they have to reduce any risks of destroying coastal resource. Their awareness about the importance of sustainable use is an essential factor to make recovery programs of fishing communities.
Irrigation reservoir is played important part in the community activeties on the many side. Sannagawa Irrigation Reservoir constructed by Gunma prefectural business subsidize under Japanese government early in the Showa Era.
Under these circumustance, community farmers could not use Yaba Irrigation Reservoir pond for water supply and fish farming. Yaba Irrigation Reservoir pond was constructed early Edo period and community farmers use for irrigation and fish farming extend over long time customary. This paper was investigated of historical back ground of irrigation pond with regard to utilization and concervation for long time.
This paper clear points are as follows.
1 Yaba Irrigation Reservoir pond gave instruction to control under Sannagawa Irrigation Reservoir and arable land cooperative after constructed Sannagawa Reservoir by Gunma prefectural government.
2 Community farmers not recognized to control under the Sannagawa Irrigation Reservoir and arable land cooperative still yet.
3 Especialy community based fish farming is playing important role for maintenance such as repair or improvement of irrigation pond. Therfore we must be takes into consideration for maintenance that irrigation pond how contral community based water supply and fish farming.
The resources of Japan Sea and the catches of fishery have been decreased for recent three decades. But, those quality and prices are very high, so the strategy of regional industry must be considered such resource conditions.
The catches of snow crab have increased recent 10 years. But can Beni-zuwai crab (large-red crab) recover as snow crab? It will depend on resource management.
It is important for fishery industry on Japan Sea Area to promote strong regional brand. Such typical fishery products are Echizen-gani(snow crab), Wakasa-guji(red tilefish). But it is also important to promote local distribution system and to sell all products.
Seafood processing industry must produce high quality and high value products, because of high price materials and decreasing resources. In case of Obama city, such products are Wakasa-karei(slippery sole) and Kodai-sasazuke, etc. It is necessary for such local companies to promote regional brand and to develop new commodity with high processing technology.
The beni-zuwai crab fishery using baited crab pots is one of the characteristic fisheries in the Sea of Japan. There are two types of fisheries permission for the beni-zuwai fishery distinguished by fishing area; one is permitted and regulated by the Japanese government (offshore area) and the other by local governments (each prefecture; nearshore, local grounds). The scale of fishing vessels, distance to reach the fishing grounds, handling and distribution process after landing and unit price on market are different by each type of permission.
The annual changes in the distribution pattern and amount of fishing effort (number of crab pots) for the offshore grounds are analyzed for the purpose of determining the relationship between the resource level indexed by CPUE and appropriate usage pattern of fishing grounds. There was a negative correlation between the total fishing effort and resource level before the Japan-Korea fisheries negotiation placed the waters under temporary joint control in 1999. After that, there is a negative correlation for outside the neutral waters but a positive one for inside. This may have been caused by a reduction effort of Korean fishing boats. Based on the relationship between the amount of fishing effort and CPUE, management of fishing effort, that is, where and how many pots should be used, is one of the effective methods to maintain the beni-zuwai crab fishery without the resource level declining critically.
The purpose of this paper is how to build the brand which is not involved in price competition. It describes not only a individual brand but a point with advantageous being established as a local brand. The local brand is formed by the relation of regional various resources and marine products, and the organization that manages them well is necessary. It is shown that there are three types of patterns of such the local brand, and verifies some cases.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate an indispensable concept and viewpoints to promote the practice and study of shokuiku/educational activities related to food in the field of fisheries. At first the general present conditions such as the modern Japanese eating habits, the policy for shokuiku, and the action contents of shokuiku were arranged. Then the present situation of regional fisheries and the action of the community improvement and the shokuiku at school in Obama City, Fukui Prefecture that is an advanced excellent example were analyzed. Finally, for practice and study of shokuiku in the field of fisheries, took the basic plan for fisheries and shokuiku into consideration, the kinetic and general concept and basic viewpoints of shokuiku in the field of fisheries were shown.
The purpose of this study is to examine the preceding regional activities relevant to educational activities on food which utilizes fishery and fishery products and to organize such effects, required devices and the arising issues at the time of implementation and diffusion. In the future, it is necessary to consider the matter of supportive activities support for middle and larger scale schools, or schools that are not located in production areas. It is required that the activities on food which utilizes fishery and fishery products are in relation with normal education subjects throughout the year for multiple years. It is desirable that the term eating is nutured by multilateral interest and understanding in connection with social studies.
In this thesis, it aims to pay attention to the fishery industry and marine products, and to clarify the approach of the nutrition education activity that uses local marine products of the current state and the problem of the nutrition education in the fishery field as a case. The approach that was able to come within the sweep to the creation of a social, cultural value in not only the economical value creation but also non-economic merit, that is, in the region is necessary for local marine products excluded by an existing circulation system as future tasks.