The purpose of this research is to realize a Multiple Robots System which can be easily developed and managed. In order to perform robust cooperative work, it is necessary that multiple robots can achieve not only a high level of cooperation without communication but also simple cooperation with communication, and then switch between modes according to the situation. We call such cooperative work “Tight Cooperative Work”. To achieve such cooperative work, there must be an integrated concept in the system about structure in a robot and whole system. We consider Object Oriented System is effective to realize this concept. In this paper, we propose a method for the construction of Object Oriented System for multiple robots. We constructed a cooperative working system called ICRoS and implemented it on two hexapod robots with parallel processors. We verified the effectiveness of this multiple robots system with four different experiments involving the cooperative lifting of a box.
Several position identification methods have been used for mobile robots. Dead reckoning is a popular method, but is not reliable for measurement over long distances especially on uneven surfaces due to the accumulation error of wheel diameter and slippage. The landmark method, which estimates current position relative to landmarks, cannot be used in an uncharted environment. We have proposed a new method called“Cooperative Positioning System (CPS) .”For CPS, we divide the robots into two groups, A and B. One group, A, remains stationary and acts as a landmark while group B moves. Group B then stops and acts as a landmark for group A. This “dance” is repeated until the target position is reached. CPS has a far lower accumulation of positioning error than dead reckoning, and can work in three-dimensions which is not possible with dead reckoning. Also, CPS has inherent landmarks and therefore works in uncharted environments. In previous papers, we have introduced the prototype CPS machine models, CPS-I and CPS-II and demonstrated high performance as a positioning system in an unknown and uneven environment. In this paper, we report on the third prototype CPS model, CPS-III, that is designed specificly as an automatic floor-cleaning robot system, and its experimental result. In this system, we categorize these robots for two tasks, that is, a accurate positioning task that is achieved with 3 robots using the CPS strategy, and a floor-cleaning task that uses an omni-directional vehicle, so as to improve the efficiency of the floor-cleaning system. Experiments show that these robots can perform a floor-cleaning task in a corridor within a positioning error of 140.8 [mm] even after robots move over a distance of 101.7 [m] .
This paper propose design method for easier operational master arm with fingers. New finger configuration shows operator's finger construction is reduced, when he installs and operates the master finger. It has force generation mechanisms and tactile feeling generation mechanisms with 4 generation cells which are actuated by pneumatic servo control system to reduce the operating inertia force and improve the operationability. Since master arm has also pneumatic force feed back control system, its mass or operating inertia force is very small and resolution of force is high. This finger and arm is assembled and is verified that master slave control is highly improved by this fingered master manipulator.
Many wall-climbing mechanisms have been developed for inspection of walls of buildings, washing of windows, plant inspection, and so on. It is important to lighten the weight of the wall-climbing mechanism when we design it. Therefore we should use actuators which have minimum power to move the mechanism. We will discuss on a relation of leg and body mass ratio to power demanded for vertical locomotion of the multi-sole biped legged wall-climbing mechanism. In the case of walking mechanisms which move on the horizontal plane, the mass ratio should be zero from a point of energetic efficiency. In the case of wall-climbing mechanisms, a design to minimize the mass ratio is disadvantageous, because, to remove parts from the leg to the body to minimize the mass ratio makes the body heavier and demands more power to move the body. In this paper, the existence of the optimal mass ratio and a design method using the mass ratio is introduced. Additionally, to evaluate the validity of the proposed method, a design example is introduced.
The locomotion is said to be generated by the CPG (Central Pattern Generator) that is located at lower level of the nervous system. The CPG consists of some nervous oscillators, which is able to be regarded as an autonomous decentralized system. The gate patterns generated by these oscillators in CPG adapt to the environment and are high efficiency. We deal with an application of autonomous decentralized system to myriapod locomotion robot. In this algorithm, one subsystem consists of one leg and one oscillator. Though they only treat local informations and have functions for controlling one leg, they cangenerate harmonious gait patterns. Some simulations based on this algorithm show them.
In order to make a robot perform a contact task with an environment, robot must have an enough skillfulness and compliance simultaneously.Parallel manipulator has attracted an interest because of its features such as a multiple d.o.f. for its compact mechanism which is available for complicated tasks. In the meanwhile pneumatic actuator has a high power/weight ratio and an inherent compliance function due to the air compressibility which makes it possible to perform a minute force regulation. In this paper we apply an impedance control to the prototype of parallel manipulator driven by pneumatic cylinders and its control performances are investigated. There are 2 general impedance control strategies, one is force based type and the other is position based one. In the former one the influence of manipulator's dynamics such as inertia force and damping one affect on the control variable directly, while in the latter one applied external force works as a disturbance. Therefore we construct both types of control system based on the pressure control system to kill out the influence of these disturbances which are estimated with a dimension of a pressure by using a disturbance observer. Moreover we comprise an simplified position based impedance control system. The control performances are compared among the proposed three control systems analytically and the validity of them are proved by some experiments.
We developed the Advanced Space Robot Testbed with Redundant Arms (ASTRA) for studying the autonomous control of a space robot. Berthing a satellite that is moving in space is the kind of difficult and dangerous task expected of space robots. This paper describes a robot which berthes a mockup satellite that is moving and rotating in zero gravity. The features of the robot include the capability for an autonomous approach to a moving target satellite on the base of a visual estimation of satellite motion, real-time visual tracking control for tracking satellite handles with two robot arms, and the capability to grasp the satellite handles while exerting minimum mechanical shock because of flexible wrist mechanisms and impedance control. We ran a satellite berthing experiment with ASTRA to check its performance.
This paper describes a human-robot cooperation system which enables robust behaviors of robots in a real world by combining human's ability of recognition, inference and decision with robot's autonomy. In previous systems, interactions between operators and robots are designed by programmers. We consider that the interactions should dynamically change through iterative process of human-robot cooperation. In the system, the robots obtain autonomous behaviors by memorizing human's instructions and obtain autonomous behaviors for behaving in complex environments. We have designed a system which consists of vision guided mobile robot, several cameras embedded in the environment and visual information interface with an idea of layered interaction structure, and we have experimented in a town model. We call this system DVScoop (Distributed Vision System for human-robot cooperation) .
As the aged population is increasing in Japan. The population of young people to support it is decreasing. Consequently, a welfare support system is required that uses robot agents to give physical assistance to handicapped people. In such a system, the person commands an agent directly by gesture, and this instruction is input into the agent via its sensor. The agent recognizes motions from the sensor input, surmises the intention of the motions, and then takes action for the person. If the agent's knowledge is limited to recognizing an instruction and inferring the intention of the motion and the person cannot instruct the agent, then the agent cannot initiate action. For such a welfare support system to be constructed, the agent needs to be able to act automatically, without instruction. Here, an agent with such a hierarchical knowledge configuration is called a Welfare Intelligent Robot (WIR) . An emotion-oriented interface has been developed for the WIR. Also, an engineering model of knowledge, emotion and intention for the interface has been produced, and applied to a mobile robot (WIR) . A WIR with this interface can act without instruction. Results of experiments have proved the effectiveness of the interface.
This study aims to realize passive impedance control of the robot joint by mechanical elements (MIA), and to develop an anthropomorphic manipulator using this mechanism. The mechanism has the advantage of conventional method of the force control in realizing high compliance. The manipulator which employs this joint mechanism is suitable for the human-robot coordination, because each joint can realize safety motion. This paper presents a development of the anthropomorphic robot arm (seven-D.O.F. MIA Arm) which consists of shoulder, elbow, and wrist. This paper also describes experimental evaluations of the seven-D.O.F. MIA Arm by means of compliance and damping adjustment, force following motion, and trajectory control. The experimental results show that the seven-D.O.F. MIA Arm can realize high performance in motion control with consideration to the effect of self-weight and damping.
The porpuse of our reseach is to show the realization of non-stationary motions (sitting down and standing up motion, and manipulator motions, etc.) for a biped walking robot. We have proposed a design method for non-stationary motions before, and we have shown that the resultant control system had a property of a kind of robustness against some modeling error theoretically. In this paper, we report that we developed an experimental apparatus named Sauro-Emu that is able to realize the sitting down and standing up motion with manipulator motions. Through some experiments, we show the effectiveness of our control scheme.
Since the installation of ceiling boards is performed on scaffolds, that need jointing/disjointing and moving, this work has a danger of falling and it is heavy labor because of working posture. This theme aims to develop a new installation method of ceiling boards with the use of the robot that performs without scaffolds and solve these problems. This paper shows, 1) Investigations of the conventional method for making clear the objects and conditions of execution. 2) Basic tests for deciding the robot's specifications. 3) Calculations of the robot's performance.
Ultimate goal of this study is making up CIM of painting process for large scale steel product. For the purpose of it, the study aims at developing a simple way of accuracy evaluation of trajectory for NC painting robot. First, we made it clear that generation system of operation data for NC robot is one of the most important items and accuracy evaluation of robot trajectory is essential for it. We noticed through experiment that accuracy of trajectory is proportional to the distance between TCP (Tool Center Point) and singular point. We also noticed that there exists one locus of singular points subject to one tool configuration. This means that minimum distance between trajectory and the locus is useful for the evaluation. In this paper, detail of algorithm and characteristic of this method is described. This method is found to be very practical because calculating value of the Jacobian is not necessary.
This paper presents, in positioning a robot manipulator by visual servoing with stereo vision, when pan angles are not exactly calibrated, the analysis of unreconstructible surface from images, the effect on visual servoing, and the region robust to calibration error about pan angles.