Four major kallikreins (mK1, mK22, mK9, and mK13) were identified in the mouse submandibular gland (SMG). mK1, a true tissue kallikrein, was used as a protein marker to identify different types of SMG granular convoluted tubule (GCT) cells along with epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and renin. Kallikrein mK1 was localized in a very small number (~5%) of GCT cells, which were scattered throughout the GCT, indicating that the majority of GCT cells are mK1-negative. Among mK1-positive cells, particularly strong signals were observed in a small number of narrow cells, recognized as slender granular cells (SG cells, Type IV), in the GCT. After postnatal development of the SMG, GCT cells are no longer uniform based on the bioactive substances (mK1, EGF, NGF, and renin) that they produce and secrete. GCT cells were classified into four subtypes, Types I–IV, and it became clear that these subtypes are complicatedly and reversibly converted by the endocrine hormones 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and triiodothyronine (T3). Duct segments with similar morphology or hormone dependency were recognized in the sublingual and parotid glands. The presence of duct cells with such characteristics is therefore a common feature of the three major salivary glands of rodents.
Fatty liver is common in men and post-menopausal women, suggesting that estrogen may be involved in liver lipid metabolism. The aim of this study is to be clear the role of estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in fat accumulation during liver regeneration using the 70% partial hepatectomy (PHX) model in male, female, ovariectomized (OVX) and E2-treated OVX (OVX-E2) rats. Liver tissues were sampled at 0–48 hr after PHX and fat accumulation, fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and ERα were examined by Oil Red O, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Hepatic fat accumulation was abundant in female and OVX-E2 compared to male and OVX rats. FAT/CD36 expression was observed in female, OVX and OVX-E2 at 0–12 hr after PHX, but not in male rats. At 0 hr, SREBP1c and PPARα were elevated in female and male rats, respectively, but were decreased after PHX in all rats. The PCNA labeling index reached a maximum at 36 hr and 48 hr in OVX-E2 and OVX rats, respectively. ERα expression in OVX-E2 was higher than OVX at 0–36 hr after PHX. In conclusion, these results indicated that estrogen and ERα might play an important role in fat accumulation related to FAT/CD36 during early phase of rat liver regeneration.
The interleukin (IL)-4, 1,25(OH)2D3 and retinoic acid, increase surface expression of functional integrin αvβ3 on murine osteoclast precursors. All three agonists stimulate transcription of the β3 gene, leading to increased steady-state levels of mRNA this protein. By contrast, mRNA levels of αv remain unchanged. In each instance, the increase in the surface expression of the integrin results in increased migration of the cells onto an αvβ3 substrate. Because β3 subunit, except platelet where β3 subunit conform a dimer with αIIb, associates solely with αv subunit monogamously, while promiscuous αv subunit combines with various subunit, our present data support the idea that the β3 subunit governs the surface-expressed functional integrin complex.