The Japanese governmental budget is expected to decrease along with its population. Consequently, maintaining urban services such as public transportation, commerce, and medical services in many areas of urban sprawl regions will be difficult. Although urban compaction policy is regarded as useful to resolve these problems, the lives of residents might become difficult temporarily because withdrawal of urban services will occur in some areas through the process of urban compaction. To date, this aspect of such new risk (urban layout risk) has never been reported. In this study, newly considering the time axis, the knowledge and facts of urban layout risk are revealed through a questionnaire survey. Results show the following: 1) residents do not realize the attendant urban layout risk; 2) different urban layouts and services show differing impacts on urban layout risk; 3) compaction scenarios do not always show less risk than a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario in the middle of the process for urban reform. Results show that a continuing effort is necessary to realize long-range planning.
In planning and design of infrastructure, considerations of local situation and residents' interests are essential issues. However, there are a lot of problems for forming a meeting place of dialogues when participatory process should be started, because of lack of knowledge on the efficient methods to find stakeholders to be involved, and find interests to be discussed. This study aims to verify effectiveness of the stakeholder analysis which is developed in Consensus Building Process in US as so called Conflict Assessment in order to understand of interests in a local area. By introducing stakeholders analysis into practical planning process of a new river embankment considering local history, culture and landscape, the authors found the characteristics of the capture of interests as preparation of forming a place of participatory dialogues, and verify effectiveness on making reliability on the facilitators and satisfaction for participation as well by introducing personal interview by the facilitators as neutral person.
Recently in-depth understanding of pedestrian behavior in public space is becoming significant with regard to achieving more sophisticated space design and flow control. Although there is a need to acquire automatically such behavior information, automatic human tracking is difficult under the situations that people move close to each other or are occluded by others. In this paper, we propose a new method of multiple human tracking under the complex situations. We review related works on both human tracking method by image processing and simulation model of pedestrian behavior, respectively. According to the review, we develop a method as a stochastic process, integrating them on the framework of general state space model. We apply the proposed method to the data acquired at the ticket gate of the railway station and confirm the high performance of the method. We also demonstrate the ability to acquire the OD data from the tracking result and show the future possibility.
Recently, the number of passenger of public bus services in Japan tends to decrease due to the motorization. This condition leads to a severe management situation, including in Kumamoto City. Since 1984, the deficit of bus companies operation in provision of bus services in Kumamoto has been covered by Kumamoto City Government on the basis of lines subsidy, and the city allocated a number of subsidy of about 200 million yen in 2007. Currently, The Kumamoto city government plans to reduce the amount of subsidy to bus companies by introducing the giving of incentive to bus companies in order to trim bus company deficit. This study aims to construct the mathematical model of the incentive reward and apply the model to realignment of buses lines networks in Kumamoto Metropolitan Area.