In this study, we evaluated difficulty levels of travelers with baby stroller by using Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS), and verified the relationship between STS and their experiences to receive the assistance from those around or cognitions of descriptive social norm by cross-country comparison with Japan, U.K., France, Germany and Sweden. Results showed that experiences of Japanese to receive the assistance from those around was less than other four countries. It was also shown that STS with baby stroller was less than those of commute travel which were known as the lowest level of STS. The experiences of the assistance from those around and cognitions of descriptive social norm affected on STS with baby stroller significantly and positively. However, cognitive evaluation for subjective well-being of Japanese were not affected on experiences to receive assistance from those around.
In Iida-city of Nagano prefecture, Japan, there was the great fire in 1947. The destruction area was 60 ha. After that, the Iida city administration made the city re-construction plan. And various town re-adjustment projects had been done. In this plan, back boundary lines projects were imposed and aimed to make a walkway for refuge from a fire and first-aid fire fightings. These lines are narrow paths which link house backs, about 2 meter width. They are called “Rikaisen” and are now used as a public path for daily life. Because of narrow, a car cannot pass. Each house which sandwiched a boundary line set a path back each 1 meter. And it was made municipal roads with 2 meter width. This path plan was based on lessons and reflections from the vast fire. So, this study reported the history of “Rikaisen” construction process. The path construction had progressed slowly till 1960s. But in the middle of 1970s, simple road pavements were carried out at a time with an infrastructure building, such as sewage, electricity and gas supply. By simple pavements, local newspaper articles said, the city administration let clarify its own intention as a public walkway. And it has come to be the current scene from about 1980. For nearly 70 years after the fire, constructions and maintenances of them have been continued by the city administration so far, such as a breakthrough of end or an extension. One of factors that constructions had been continued for a long time included continuous requests from neighborhood community associations. In local newspapers, associations had demanded cleanness of the negative hygiene environment as a reason of requests, such as habitation of mosquito-larvae. It may be said that clearances of negative elements were a driving force to promote continuation of the city planning.
Countdown-type traffic signals for vehicles which display remaining green time and waiting red time have been installed positively in foreign countries. In this study, we conducted the survey at eight intersections with varying in road structures and signal conditions in China, and analyzed the stopping behaviors at intersections with or without countdown-type traffic signals. According to the results of regression analyses for vehicle behaviors during inter-green periods, it can be revealed that drivers at intersections with countdown-type traffic signals tend to prepare the deceleration behaviors earlier than the case of without countdown-type traffic signals. In addition, it is also shown that both the acceleration and the approach speed for the drivers who judge to pass the intersection with countdown-type traffic signals are statistically-significant reduction compared to the case without countdown-type traffic signals. Therefore, it can be indicated that the countdown-type traffic signals are safe under the intersection conditions that drivers can recognize the countdown display from 90-meters upstream at intersections, several severe regulation of red light running with video camera and without all-red interval.