It is believed in urban economics that a polycentric urban configuration emerges only when the multiple-types of agents compete for land (Fujita and Thisse, 2002, p.209). This paper discloses that the polycentric urban configuration emerges in a single-type agent model. We also show that the dispersion force with a spill-over effect and its distance decay property are necessary for the emergence of the polycentric configuration. To show this, we compare two types of social interaction models, SI model and SISC model, each of which has a different dispersion force: the former model's dispersion force consists of land rent, and the latter consists of spatial competition. The analysis of two models proves that the polycentric configuration emerges in the SISC model, while this configuration never emerges in the SI model.
In this paper, a two countries model is formulated to investigate the global production-trade patters emerged by the location behaviors of multi-national enterprises. Two countries are characterized by heterogeneous labor productivities. The multi-national enterprises, heterogeneous in productivities, are supposed to provide the differentiated commodities in the monopolistically competitive global market. The enterprises purchase differentiated knowledge at the fixed cost from the international research organization. They determine production locations in the global economy. The comparative static analysis is carried out to investigate the impacts of global infrastructure arrangement, associated with the decrease of transportation costs, upon the optimal production-trade patterns in the economy.
Recently, The Open-air Parkin g increases in city center. Therefore, the decline of th e central area is caused as a results and the number of those who visit th e town has decreased. Purposes of research are as follows. It clarifies that landowners and leaseholders that have the Open-air Parking in the central area think land use. It examines that support plan that the administration should do to straighten out that problem. Various support plans are examined from the cost benefit analysis, revenue, and value of support plan. The composition is as follows. In Chapte r 2, it clarifies that landowners and leaseholders that have the Open-air Parking in the central area think land use from "Land use intention investigation". In Chapter 3, the effective profit use usage selection model is presumed. In Chapter 4, the simulation analysis that measures the effect and the value of the support plan is done.
As advanced freight service is demanded, the time related requirements fo r freight transportation becomes more and more significant. This study, focusing on temporal distribution of freight transportation responding to the travel time, developed a shipment departure time decision model for each item, aiming at quantitatively grasping social requirement in the time domain. The model takes account of the daily work cycle of both work cy cles of shippers and carriers along with the travel time. The proposed model has a similar structure as that derived from the previous studies taking account of the daily living cycle of individuals. This model properly reproduced temporal distribution of shipment departure time that changes depending on the length of necessary lead time for each item.
In this study, equilibrium assignment models under variable demand considering travel time reliability are proposed. These models are developed based on the system optimal and the user equilibrium principles with the constraints on the travel time reliability. Since these models can be formulated as the problems that have the same mathematical structure as the standard equilibrium assignment models under variable demand, one can apply these models to a large-scaled traffic network. Numerical experiment is carried out for examining the validity of the propo sed models.
A solution algorithm of Nash equilibrium in dy namic traffic assignment is proposed. Although many methodologies have been proposed for finding dynamic user equilibrium solutions, no algorithm that can solve equilibrium solutions in general conditions have been known. This study defines user equilibrium as Nash equilibrium and proposes a methodology so lving an equilibrium solution by assigning each vehicle one-by-one onto its shortest route. It is guara nteed that the algorithm derives a solution in certain cases such as single origin or single destinations. Th e algorithm can also applicab le to cases where queue spillbacks should be incorporated.
The new simulator which can estimate the mode-choi ce in the area was developed and evaluated in the field test. The characteristic of the developed simulato r is to be able to estimate the number of demand and demand pattern in high-accuracy with the real operation log data of the On-demand Bus. The simulator is devided into micro-simulator whose passenger agents choose their transpor t mode by the sacrifice model. The developed simulator is evaluated in the real fi eld test in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture. The new transportation like LRT (Light Rail Transit) and On-demand Bus is eval uated by the simulator and the result of simulation is confirmed to be reliable by the local government officers.
These days, providing reliable road transportation services is required. The reliability of road transportation can be classified into connectivity reliability, travel time reliability and safety/comfort reliability according to required functions. The trav el time reliability is concerned in this study. The variability of traffic flow and travel time is review ed, and travel time reliability indices proposed in previous studies and their properties are organized. Trav el behavior models with travel time reliability are classified, and the value of travel time reliability is examined based on the estimation results of the models. Then, a method for travel time reliability benefit is proposed. This would be helpful for cost-benefit analysis with reliability or road tr affic management which increases the reliability.