We study the impact of highways on the geography of regional employment and establishments. To identify the causal effect and its spatial scope, we have relied on geographical random sampling, propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimator. Using the data of highway interchanges which were put into service between 1996 and 2014 in Japan, we estimate the impact of the openings of highway interchanges on the density of employment and establishments in the surrounding area by distance bands and by industries. The results show that new highway interchanges increase regional total employment by 3.4% and that the effect appears within 4km. We also show the robustness of the proposed method by comparing with the alternative conventional method.
Various evaluations have been made in the field of administrative planning to assess financial constraints imposed by population decline, but the actual situation has not been fully elucidated. For this study, we categorize changes and evaluation contents of evaluations performed in the planning field for urban planning administration. Furthermore, we clarify the characteristics and present basic information for future evaluations. From analyzing laws, plans, operation guidelines, and other documents related to city planning administration, evaluation efforts were categorized into three types: a) evaluation of partial plans, b) evaluation of plans in a project area, and c) comprehensive evaluation of plans. Results clarified that the evaluation contents were integrated, the target areas were expanded, and the evaluation periods were lengthened in the order of a), b), and c).