For planning and implementing public policies related to civil engineering, it is important to understand people's attitude toward government. Although some studies have clarified the factors of public criticism to the government, we have not yet all the possible factors of the criticism to the government. In this paper, we focus on the issue that the “egoistic-human-being belief”, which means a belief that “all people are absolute egoists”, is one of the basic factors in the attitude toward government and its policy. We statistically tested the theoretical hypothesis about the negative attitude toward them caused by the egoistic-human-being belief by using a questionnaire survey data. As a result, the hypotheses were supported.
The planning system with three parallel planning processes, in other words, a tri-coinciding planning process is proposed in this paper. The process is composed of technical examination process, planning sequential process and communication process. Although the similar process has already been applied in the guideline of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism for the rough planning of major infrastructure development, we develop a general framework for the regional plan and the infrastructure plan by considering validity claims based on citizen's needs. We examine the reason of taking those framework and some controversial points of discussion during the planning process, such as the evaluation of alternatives, the causal relation between ends and means.
In order to avoid the communication conflicts due to the misunderstanding for the discussed issue by the participants who are not used to the public discourse, a facilitator is often set at the meeting for community issue discussed by the inhabitants. This study purposes to clarify the influence of facilitator's discourse management on participant's perception for the conclusion. A discourse experiment conditioned by positive / routine facilitation is made to get the discourse records with the discourse evaluation by the participants, collected by the post-discourse questionnaire survey. A decision tree analysis showed that the higher evaluation for the participant's perception for discussion conclusion can be induced by a positive discussion management of the facilitator when he or she evaluates the self-contribution to the discourse as significant. However, when he or she evaluates the self-contribution to the discourse as insignificant, a positive discussion management of the facilitator would decrease the participant's perception.
In recent years, reducing delays during the rush hours in metropolitan area has become one of the most important issues to the railway companies. In particular, it is observed that once a small delay happens, it widely spreads out to many other trains. Tokyo Metro has established an approach to reduce train delays by utilizing train traffic record data and visualization of train delays and indications (Static Index, Active Index) and identification of cause of delays. For the Tozai Line that experiences delays and congestions most frequently, Tokyo Metro has been analyzing causes of delays making the most of train traffic record data. In doing so, rescheduling, station staff operation, etc. as well as hardware such as signal facility, station facility and car facility has been improved therefore delay has been greatly shortened. In this paper, verified are delay reduction measures and their effects. Moreover, further examined is such delay reduction measures especially for dense lines operating in metropolitan area.
This research considers whether or not the decomposition of the Gini coefficient is applicable when evaluating The Comprehensive National Land Improvement Plans. I put the point of view of the Plans about the inequality among the areas in order. I clarify compared with the plan's point of view that the decomposition of the Gini coefficient can be applied to the evaluation of the plans by making good use of recent study results about the Gini coefficient.
Network vulnerability analysis considering only the influences of the event without considering its occurrence probability has been proposed recently. This study proposes the network vulnerability method of evaluating the influences of the closure of the road section while considering the number of distinct paths to enhance the connectivity of OD pairs. We formulate the mathematical problem of minimising total travel time while satisfying the number of distinct paths, and a potential accessibility measure is calculated based on the average travel time of the distinct paths. The critical section can be determined by the decrease of the accessibility measures by the closure of its section. We applied the model to whole road network of Gifu Prefecture, and evaluated the connectivity in the non-degraded condition as well as connectivity vulnerability under degraded situation. As a result, we could identify potentially critical sections by considering the number of distinct paths. Furthermore, we have found the sections whose accessibility is fine under the non-degraded situation but the accessibility decrease enormously by its closure, and this result suggests the importance of evaluating the network both connectivity evaluation under non-degraded situation and vulnerability evaluation.
Several methods have been proposed to optimize two typical road-pricing schemes: cordon-based and area-based pricing. However, existing methods sometimes generate unrealistic optimal charging boundaries because it is difficult to control the shape of the charging boundary. In addition, these methods are unable to optimize the location of center point of charging boundary. Thus, it is necessary to set the location of center by human judgment before the computation. This study proposes an algorithm framework that can optimize charging boundary including the location of center point and control the shape of the boundary. The algorithm applies computational geometry approach to represent and optimize charging boundary. In addition, it can optimize multiple charging boundaries. This model is applied to real-world network and results are compared with existing method.
The objective of this study is to clarify the relationship between social media information (i.e., Twitter) and returning home behavior in disaster. In order to analyze Twitter's textual data, which is tweeted in the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March, 2011, this study applies text-mining approach. The results of text-mining confirm the trend of collocation's network among terms after the Earthquake happened, and the distribution of term co-occurrence frequency. On the other hand, using the returning home data sets on 11 March, 2011 collected at Tokyo and Kanagawa, this study calculate the differences of estimated population between one point and the former point. Moreover, using the two data sets, this study analyzed the relationship between Social Media and returning home behavior using a canonical correlation analysis. Term co-occurrence frequency in Social Media and behavior of returning home is applied to two sets of variables in canonical analysis, and the estimation results demonstrated that these two are significantly interdependent.
Interaction of economic activities between different spatial scales (e.g., Country-Region-City) has never been examined in traditional location theory (e.g., New Economic Geography: NEG). In this paper, we develop the Core-Periphery model with hierarchical (i.e., multi-scale) spatial structure which introduces the interaction between inter-regional and intra-regional transportation costs explicitly, and analyze bifurcation phenomena of the equilibrium by the approach proposed by Akamatsu et al. 1), 2). Results of our analysis reveal that combinations of inter-regional and intra-regional transport costs can yield a wide variety of agglomeration (dispersion) patterns depending on the transportation parameter values. In particular, one of the most interesting transitions of agglomeration patterns is inter-regional re-dispersion caused by intra-regional competition. This findings suggest that traditional theory disregarding spatial scales should be reconsidered.