When considering tsunami evacuation problems, the existence of some psychological factors (e.g. cognitive dissonance and attitudes waiting for warning) of residents were pointed out as causes of the delays of residents' starting evacuation activities. In order to understand the decision making process for their starting evacuation activities, this research aims to model a decision making incorporating individual rationality and cognitive dissonance in a two-period model. As a result, the paper shows that the present model successfully simulates the evacuee's decision delay for their evacuation activities.
This paper aims to analyze theoretically the value of business travel time saving (business VTTS) and to derive the wage rate plus approach and Hensher's formula from the models. First, the past research on the business VTTS is reviewed including cost saving approach and Hensher approach. Ten models are formulated based on three cases: the utility maximization of business traveler from an employee's viewpoint, the profit maximization of the firm from an employer's viewpoint, and the group utility maximization from thecombined viewpoints of the employer and the employee. The results show that the wage rate plus approach is justified only in the employee's utility maximization for the business travel that is made within work hours under the time off in lieu. Then, the Hensher approach is theoretically derived from the group utility maximization approach with additional assumptions. Finally the implications of the results are discussed.
Public debates play an important role in consensus-building on infrastructure projects. This study explores the relevant role and issues of public debates regarding infrastructure projects and develops a theoretical framework to ensure the legitimacy of social decision-making through the overall content of various debates. Introducing the concept of discourse system, it points out that public discourses consist of micro discourses focusing on specific public debate and macro discourses focusing on the whole discourse system. It is suggested that public involvement serves to connect the micro and macro discursive spheres. Finally, the fundamental principles of public discourses, important issues to overcome in order to realize good debates, and basic frameworks to evaluate the appropriateness of debates are discussed.
One of solutions which revitalize the carter of the city seem to be habitation This study investigate the actual condition and the habitant in city carton of Kumamoto city. The questionnaire survey is conducted for resident both in the city center and in the suburban resident areas. We analyze a preference structure for the area of residence and build a discrete choice model which considers incorporating latent classes. From a result, we find the way that promote the habitation live in the city center.
Most large transportation terminals in large cities have not only transportation function but also commercial function. Then, most large transportation terminals have three dimensional structures, which force travelers to three dimensional behaviors. This study aims to develop a three dimensional route choice model for pedestrians in large transportation terminals, based on observational survey. In order to explain such pedestrian behavior, this study adopts two stages of process. In the first stage, location choice models in order to find the point of up and down are developed, and the other models for estimation of route choice behavior in ground and under ground level respectively in the second stage. Combining the models, this study proposes a method to estimate pedestrian route choice behavior in a large scale transportation terminal in three dimensional space.
As economic growth has caused motorization and urban sprawl in Asian developing countries, it has become increasingly important to develop low-carbon transport systems at the early stage of their growth. However, in designing measures to realize such systems, the effects of measures are hardly able to be estimated in cities of Asian developing countries due to their limited data and uncertain futures. This study analyzes the potential impacts of early implementation of land-use transport measures on urban sprawl in a mega-city of Asian developing countries by setting a scenario of future changes in the levels of motorization and railway use based on Japan's experience and modeling the consequent changes in households' location in Bangkok. The results show that spatial distribution of changes in population density is significantly affected by combination patterns among railway development, land-use control and TOD and by their implementation timing.
Railway track irregularity needs to be kept within satisfactory range through appropriate maintenance scheduling work. We propose an all-integer type linear programming model for obtaining an optimal railway track maintenance schedule. In order to evaluate the functions of the scheduling model for the actual application of the optimization model results we apply both simulation methods and field tests. Also for the versatile implementation of the optimization model results we propose constraint relation methods for avoiding infeasibility as our "unusual" model results. Finally we discuss the future problems and possibilities for our model to contribute not only for our domestic use but also for international standardization area.
A certain period of time has been passed since started to discuss "Compact City". However the effects of Compact City have ever been researched in developed countries, the method, process, feasibility hasn't been clarified in Japan. Therefore it is important to seek how to realize Compact City. The purpose of this study is to propose concept of "Mobility Residue Value (MRV)" from a viewpoint of citizens. MRV is defined as the summation of utility about mobility, which one would receive during a lifetime. People have to recognize and consider MRV when choosing residence for realizing Compact City. Authors tried to establish the concept of MRV, and estimate by using traffic mode choice model. In consequence, it was verified that people in local city Utsunomiya would not decide residential choice in consideration of MRV.
In this study, we analyzed the actual amount of gasoline transported into the Tohoku region during the first month after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We found that (1) the amount of gasoline supplied in the Tohoku region during the first two weeks was only 1/3 of the normal demand; (2) the shortage of supply in the first two weeks led to a huge “back-log of demand”; (3) it took four weeks for the backlog to be cleared; the lost (suppressed) demand during the period was equivalent to the amount of normal demand for 7 days. (4) the gaps between gasoline supply and demand in the Pacific coast areas were huge, compared with those in the Japan sea coast areas; the gap in each prefecture of the Tohoku region was gradually reduced over time in the following order: Akita, Aomori, Iwate, Yamagata, and finally, Miyagi prefecture.