Designing sampling strategy is a major concern in statistics. The same also holds for study fields that discuss spatial data modeling, including geostatistics; and, recently, sample site selection design is intensively discussed in these fields. This study applies geostatistics to the assessed site allocation problem in the officially assessed land price data and prefectural land price data in Japan. Firstly, we explain these land price data, while mainly focusing on basic rules of their assessed site allocation. Then, studies discussing sampling design problems are briefly summarized. Subsequently, points, which we must consider, are clarified, and geostatistical approaches for the land price assessed site allocation problem are developed based on the points. Finally, the developed approaches are used to the assessed site reduction problem in Ibaraki prefecture, and their effectiveness is examined.
Recently, according to the strengthening of fuel efficiency targets, the increased environmental consciousness and the technology innovation, the fuel efficiency of new car improved every year. However, the mileage in a real drive by users does not match the nominal mileage measured by the manufacturer. That is because the actual fuel consumption is according to the driving environment, the attributes of the vehicles and travel distance. To grasp how these factors affect the mileage is necessary. Previous studies on mileage using large scale official data are very few in Japan. Based on such a backdrop, in this study, we use the data of fuel consumption survey by MLIT continued from 2006 to analysis the effect of the driving environment, the attributes of the vehicles and travel distance on mileage of gasoline vehicle and diesel vehicle.
This paper presents a supply chain network equilibrium model with the behaviour of multi-tiered suppliers of raw materials and semi-products. Within the model, the decentralised decision-making of manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, consumers, freight carriers and suppliers on supply chain networks (SCNs) is incorporated, with its interaction being taken into account. The model also deals with the transformation of raw materials undertaken through the upper to lower suppliers using product functions. Numerical tests are conducted with the model for investigating the influence on SCN performance of the substitution of raw materials as well as of the disaster-hit suppliers.
In recent years, statistical deterioration prediction methods for infrastructures have been advanced rapidly. These methods mostly use inspection data evaluating the progression of deterioration with discrete soundness level. However, the criteria for judging soundness level regarding deterioration (hereinafter called judging criteria) may be changed during the service period of structures. In this case, conventional statistical deterioration prediction methods cannot be applied. In this study, the authors formulate a model for the relation between the soundness levels before and after the revision to the judging criteria, and propose a hidden Markov deterioration model as the model combined with a Markov deterioration model defined by the new standard soundness level after the revision to the judging criteria. In addition, the authors propose a method for conducting the Bayesian estimation of the above model with the MCMC method, and discuss the applicability and effectiveness based on the cases of applying it to tunnel luminaires.
This paper examines the effect of compact city on energy consumption by simulating the effect of three typical kinds of compact urban structure. The relationship between the urban structure and the effectiveness in reducing energy consumption is made clear. The energy consumption can be estimated by a model based on individual consumption behaviors of composite goods and mobility goods. This model is applied to four scenarios on the combination of urban structure and transportation services in Kumamoto metropolitan region in 2030. Results from scenario based simulation analysis suggest that multi-pole urban structure, which is made up of several convenient residential core poles around transit terminals and is connected by public transport service, is the best choice of compact urban structure.