Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management)
Online ISSN : 2185-6540
ISSN-L : 2185-6540
Volume 70 , Issue 5
Showing 1-50 articles out of 114 articles from the selected issue
Infrastructure Planning and Management Vol.31 (Special Issue)
  • Eihan SHIMIZU
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_1-I_20
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The German architect Wilhelm Böckmann proposed a city plan for Tokyo (“Tokyo plan”) in 1886 that was the first to locate the National Diet Building in its present location on the Nagatacho hill. This, however, has been buried in history, and has not been the subject of any research up to now. This study focuses on this selection of location for the National Diet Building, and is the first to examine the Böckmann's Tokyo plan in detail. In doing so, it has revealed the following: 1) that Böckmann's proposal for locating the Diet Building was radically new, and quite different from government policy and media reportage of the time; 2) that the proposal was based on his firm opinions and thinking, and his solid understanding of Tokyo's topography; 3) that locating the Diet Building on Nagatacho hill was pivotal to his Tokyo plan, particularly his linear design for a radial road network.
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  • Kiyoyuki KAITO, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_21-I_30
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The asset management for infrastructures has been conducted based on implicit knowledge, such as the experience and knowledge of professional engineers, for each process. Asset metrics is aimed at converting the decentralized decision making process based on implicit knowledge to the systematic decision making process based on formal knowledge. Especially, methodologies are developed based on the data that can be obtained through daily and regular inspections, under the thoroughgoing hands-on policy. In the field of asset management, the authors emphasize the importance of intellectual technologies for analyzing existing data rather than the hardware technologies for collecting new data, and indicate that this is consistent with the concept of big data analysis. In addition, the authors mention ideal monitoring methods in this field and the perspective for comprehensive risk management, by introducing the latest researches into asset metrics.
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  • Takaki NISHIYAMA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_31-I_44
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    During the Edo period, the Tokugawa Shogunate used two river improvement technologies, named “Kantou-ryu” and “Kishu-ryu”. “Kishu-ryu” was developed in “Kishu” (the old name for Wakayama Prefecture). In the northern part of Wakayama Prefecture, the Kinokawa River flowed towards the west, and also created the river terraces. The purpose of this study was to find the origin of the “Kishu-ryu” technology and to research the development of the irrigation water systems on the upper and middle Kinokawa River basins from the end of the 11th century to the middle of the Edo period. The water used for irrigation on the Kinokawa River basins before the Edo period was taken from a small-scale weir across the branch rivers or from man-made ponds.
    In conclusion, small-scale development of the irrigational water technologies use was introduced by the manorial systems during the Medieval Japan. Subsequently, these systems disappeared gradually by the 16th century. At the end of the 16th century, the irrigation ponds were constructed and repaired by one of the Buddhist priests, named “Saint Ougo”. In the Edo period after “Saint Ougo”, large-scale irrigation canals and the embankments along the Kinokawa River were constructed by the Kishu clan. On this historical development, this paper found that the irrigational systems of the reclaimed rice fields on the Kinokawa River basins have changed from the development of cross direction into the large-scale development of parallel direction along the Kinokawa River.
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  • Yumu ICHIMARU, Haruo ISHIDA, Naohisa OKAMOTO
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_45-I_54
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Existing infrastructures are aging rapidly and strategic efforts to that end are required. In the case of bridge, local governments have managed most of that, but they have a much lower rate of engineers and budget than national government and local prefectural governments. In this situation, the establishment of the maintenance/management of bridges, especially overpass of expressway is an important issue for local governments. This paper analyzes “Bridge Asset Management Plan” and the questionnaire conducted by ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism to understand the current situation of bridge management.
    Finally, the issues for maintenance /management of bridge and overpass of expressway are pointed out based on these analyze.
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  • Takashi FUSE, Takuya WATANABE
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_55-I_61
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Inter-regional dependence of traveling is important to understand the regional characteristics. So far, various statistics have been prepared for grasping the regions. Recently, extraction methods of dependence between variables using Bayesian network have been developed. This study proposes visualization method of inter-regional dependence based on OD data by using the Bayesian network. The Bayesian network expresses the dependence between variables as directed graph with conditional probability. The conditional probability is modeled by B-spline non-linear regression model. The graph structure is inferred based on maximum a posteriori probability. We apply the proposed method to the Inter-Regional Travel Survey in Japan, and attempt to visualize inter-regional dependence.
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  • Hiroki TAKENOUCHI, Tetsuo MORITA, Shinya FUJITA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_63-I_73
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to measure the effect on infrastructure maintenance of the disaster prevention wharf (call it DPW) for rescue ships, which has been in preparation since the biggest earthquake in the Southern area of Hyogo prefecture. As the method of research, we use graph theory, a blossoming field of mathematics. Our research flow is as follows: Firstly, we select the Tokyo area, particularly Koto ward, as the object of consideration. We construct a graph from the geographic structure, namely, traffic network together with DPW and the waterway network in this area. Then, utilizing new criteria which we invented in this paper, we study the graph structure by looking at various changes of the criteria as we add certain information about the DPW and the waterway network to the construction of a graph. This helps to gain understanding about the effect on the maintenance of the DPW so that the injured can be moved efficiently in a disaster. As a result, we observe the effect of the maintenance of DPWs. Through this study, we can give priorities among several plans for the maintenance of DPWs in view of moving the injured in a disaster.
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  • Motohiro FUJITA, Masaya OHASHI, Jun SAKAMOTO
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_75-I_83
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper focuses on Typhoon Roke (2011) which caused severe damage in Tokai region, and investigates that the effect of the typhoon on public transport. The relationship between public transportation user's behavior and the train service information was analyzed. The return-home behavior model and the travel time for return home model were developed. The result showed that the ratio of giving up to return home and the way of returning home is different because each train service's recovery is different, and the ratio of the commuters who got accurate information is less than half. In addition, commuters who didn't get the information tend to return home, and even the commuters who got the information, return-home behavior and the degree of difficulty to return home is different because it is different that when and how they got information. For reducing the degree of difficulty to return home, it is important to provide accurate information rapidly.
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  • Takanori FUKUDA, Masashi OKUSHIMA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_85-I_92
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is reported that many residents in the local coastal plain area used a private vehicle to evacuate from the tsunami at the earthquake disaster on the east of Japan. Therefore it caused serious traffic congestion and the number of victims by tsunami had increased. In this study, the traffic demand of vehicle for evacuation is estimated at every 5 minute for the day in the target area with the database of the person trip survey. On the other hand, the traffic demand of commercial vehicle for evacuation is estimated with the database of the road traffic census survey. As the result of these estimations, the maximum of the evacuation demand by vehicle can be found in the target area. Moreover, the traffic congestion on the road network of the target area is estimated with the traffic simulator with the maximum evacuation demand by vehicle. The limited number of vehicles for evacuation according to the residential block can be calculated based on the traffic capacity of bottleneck of network. Finally, it can be concluded that the traffic demand by vehicles for evacuation should be restricted appropriately.
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  • Mamoru TANIGUCHI, Shintaro ISE, He CHEN, Akinobu MURAKAMI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_93-I_102
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    New ideas must be implemented to slow the progress of severe global environment problems. Especially, a new system to alter behaviors of respective economic and environmental actors is highly anticipated. Because decentralization continues to devolve power from the national government to local municipalities, appropriate systems are necessary for governments to fulfill their responsibilities with decision making related to global environment problems. This study proposes the basic idea that municipalities should maintain environmental balance in each territory by their own efforts. Therefore, municipalities' finances and merging should be evaluated according to a balance index. The Ecological Footprint index is introduced for this evaluation to examine how territories and finances are affected by such a system. Application of this system to 44 municipalities in Ibaraki prefecture reveals 16 balanced areas and 10 unbalanced areas.
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  • Viengnam DOUANGPHACHANH, Hiroyuki ONEYAMA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_103-I_111
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Road roughness condition information is very important for the maintenance planning and management of road infrastructure. Collecting such information is time and resource consuming because it usually requires either, if not all, skillful manpower, substantial budget, and sophisticated equipment. Therefore, collecting and updating road roughness condition is viewed as a big challenge for many road authorities. The final goal of our research is to explore for a low cost and easy to use approach for the aforementioned purpose by using Android smartphones to estimate road roughness and traffic conditions. In this study we develop a model based on a relationship function of smartphone sensor data and road roughness condition. The relationship function is drawn from our experiment in Vientiane, Laos, in which we have found that the acceleration data from smartphones has a linear relationship with road roughness condition and the significant of the relationship also partly depends on speed. The most important and unique feature of the model is the ability to estimate road roughness condition using data obtained from anonymous drivers. Preliminary numerical examples and simulations using real sensor data have been carried out whereas the findings show that performance of the model and results are very promising.
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  • Shin SAWAKAMI, Hajime INAMURA, Shigeru MORICHI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_113-I_121
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study estimates unit water usage of construction works for water footprint management. A construction process is subdivided by detailed construction method based on a Gantt chart. Referring to the monthly water usage, a unit water usage of each construction method is estimated by construction site, field office and accommodation facilities. Applying the method to some construction sites in Japan, major findings are as follows: 1) The estimated unit water usage indices have enough accuracy for comparing an advantage of the construction method in question. 2) The units can evaluate the peak time water usage by employed construction method, which is important for construction management, as well as the total amount of water required for a project. 3) In order to apply for water footprint scheme, a compatibility with existing statistics such as input-output tables is discussed. 4) Functions such as number of traffic lanes and construction performance such as excavate volume are the strong candidates as a basis of the units. Application field of the two bases is discussed.
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  • Yuichiro KAWABATA, Satoshi FUJII
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_123-I_142
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The characteristics of narrative (or story) have been discussed in the humanities for centuries. Recently, on the other hand, the concept of narrative has also been introduced into some fields of social science, including sociology, political science, social psychology and management, as a key to understanding the nature of human communication and cognition. But it is still not so clear how we can make use of narrative practically for public policy planning and implementation.
    In this paper, we reviewed the preceding studies on narrative, focusing especially on the theories and findings which are applicable to communication in public policies, discuss how and where narrative can improve our practical activities and propose an outline and basic ideas of possible future empirical research.
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  • Masahiro MATSUURA, Yukikazu YAMAGUCHI, Hideo YAMANAKA, Ekou YAGI, Mari ...
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_143-I_149
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the processes of policy-making and planning, parties with different values and interests are expected to interact and resolve the differences. Facilitators and similar coordinators' contributions have been discussed in the research and practice of urban and environmental policy-making in recent years. This article reviews Profiles of Practitioners as a research method for exploring such practice of planning and policy- making. The method attempts to capture the practice, which often neglected in the normative discussion about consensus building techniques, by interviewing and transcribing a practitioner's story of experience in the field. The goal of our research is to outline the characteristics and its relative strengths as a critical method for conducting research about the practice of consensus building.
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  • Atsushi KOIKE, Tsuyoshi SASAKI, Yasuo SASAKI, Kiyoshi YAMASAKI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_151-I_159
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to develop the SCGE model for finely-divided regions in order to conduct positive analysis and estimate economic impacts. In our study, the model deals with 2,342 cites in Japan and takes into account inter-regional freight transport, commuting and capital flows between each city.
    In the positive analysis, the developed model is applied to the case of Great East Japan Earthquake. The damage of the earthquake is expressed as decrease in the production efficiency of firms, which is assumed to be equivalent to the rate of capital stock decrease in the inland and coast regions in the suffered area, i.e., Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefecture. The result shows not only that large economic damage has occurred in these suffered areas, but also that the economic damage has affected all East Japan and industrial areas of Chubu, Kinki, Chugoku and Kyushu District.
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  • Atsushi KOIKE, Yohei NAKA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_161-I_171
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Armington elasticity is one of the most important parameter in the application of SCGE models. So, a number of researches were have been published in order to estimate this parameter. However, they have not considered a change of the time. If some kind of factors such as catastrophe happened, this Armington parameter might have been changed.
    In this paper, time series data was used to examine a time stability of Armington parameter. As a result, it was stable in many industries. However, in some industries, such as iron and steel industry, Armington elasticity has changed before and after the disaster.
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  • Keisuke SATO, Atsushi KOIKE
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_173-I_186
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (SCGE) models have been empirically applied at several spatial sizes such as international and interregional scale. These models require a decision making model for trade change. The trade model is one of critical component because the SCGE model provides the effective information at each regional zone. Therefore, the characteristics of these trade models should be cleared. This paper focus on the interregional trade model which has not been cleared the theoretical and empirical characteristic. Interregional trade model is defined by two approaches which are Armington approach and Dispersed Spatial Price Equilibrium approach. Although these models have been already empirically installed to the SCGE model, these have some theoretical or empirical problem. In this paper, we propose some improvements for these problems and show the characteristics of each model.
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  • Kentaro KUMAGAI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_187-I_196
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, a validation of tsunami evacuation simulation is conducted by means of comparing a result of the simulation with results of questionnaires of evacuation activity to evacuees of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami. A target area of the simulation is a nearshore area in a bay of a ria coast of Tohoku district, and the number of the evacuees is approximately 4,700. In the simulation, each evacuee select his or her evacuation site and route in accordance with the shortest route choice problem with the capacity limit of the evacuation sites, "Conditional p-median problem". The evacuee's initial walking speed is defined by parameters which were introduced by the results of the questionnaires, in terms of a proportion of elder persons and a proportion of persons who evacuate in group. According to the result of the simulation, a shape of a curve which expresses the relation between the time and ratio of the evacuees who arrive at their goal is also seems to be agree with the result of the questionnaire. In spite of the problem that the method of the evacuation route choice adopted in the simulation is not well agree for some evacuees such as the evacuees who make complex evacuation routes, it is found that the result of the evacuation simulation is agree with the result of the tsunami evacuation activity on foot at a nearshore area in a bay of a ria coast.
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  • Takayuki FURUHASHI, Hirokazu TATANO, Yoshio KAJITANI, Tetsuya TAMAKI, ...
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_197-I_210
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Great East Japan Earthquake has generated economic losses on industrial sectors in Japan. It is assumed that the economic impact was gigantic and long-term. When devising mitigation measures to the disasters which will occur in the future, and the strategy for a restoration in an early stage after the disasters, it is important to analyze and learn from the size of the economic impact. However there was some research of assessing the property damage, for above purpose, it is needed to assess the economic impact by flow side. This type of study should be then transferred and reflected in building a risk assessment model including economic impact.
    With this background in mind, this research aims at developing the framework for estimating the economic losses and assessing the impact in the case of Great East Japan Earthquake. The result demonstrated that the economic losses in industrial sectors of 9 prefectures located in Tohoku and Kanto was 3,418 billion yen for 1 year because of seismic motion.
    This thesis is dedicated for ex-post assessing the economic impacts in case of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Although there are some previous research focused on estimating economic losses in terms of flow side, the research of verifying the possibility of assessing method for wide-area disaster like the Great East Japan Earthquake. Therefore, it is needed to research the wide-area and assess the economic impacts like this study.
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  • Kazuaki OKUBO, Makoto OKUMURA, Tatsuki AGATSUMA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_211-I_220
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the demand decreasing trend for regional public facilities, efficient renovation plan must be discussed in order to avoid the possible increase of running and maintenance cost of the facilities. When there are two or more facilities of same functions in a region, abolition of facilities would become a promising option, if the present users can be reallocated to the neighbor facility. This paper proposes a multiperiod optimal facility location model as an integer programming model containing the endogenous variable of each facility's elapsed years. The model is applied to a renovation problem of 3 virtual waste treatment facilities serving to the waste generated from 6 municipalities, and the basic behavior of the model is clarified.
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  • Makoto OKUMURA, Hiroshi TANAKA, Kazuaki OKUBO
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_221-I_228
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Stability of water resource will be harmed by abnormal precipitations caused by the possible climate change in next decades, resulted to increase of drought damages. Dam reservoir enlargement projects are then proposed, but the drought reduction function by reservoirs has not been well analyzed yet. This paper proposes 3 drought indexes which describe 3 aspects of drought phenomenon. Comparison of values of those indexes calculated by inflow and outflow provides the drought reduction measure by each reservoir. Next, that drought reduction function is statistically regressed by reservoir capacity, variation of inflow. Finally, we roughly estimate the required reservoir enlargement to cope with the possible increase of instabilities of inflow.
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  • Keisuke SATO, Daisuke YOSHINO, Atsushi KOIKE
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_229-I_240
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper will assess the current development status of Corridor 5 as a transport corridor. To assess the current development status, the report will observe the road conditions and Border Crossing Point (BCP) procedure processing durations. Second, impact of the improvement of Corridor 5 on Tajikistan and Kyrgyz Republic exports to major trading partners will be considered. Third, the report will estimate the possible time reduction of transportation along Corridor 5 and consider the impacts of time saving on exports of Tajikistan and Kyrgyz Republic. The findings of the report will be utilized as basis for the study to consider Corridor 5 as an economic corridor. The report conducts a model analysis using a Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model called RAEM-Light model. It assesses how time reduction of transportation along Corridor 5 due to improvement of the corridor will expand exports from Tajikistan and Kyrgyz Republic.
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  • Hitomu KOTANI, Muneta YOKOMATSU
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_241-I_254
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Environmental transformation during a disaster recovery process may change a local convention and relationships. Since the local residents' behavior (practice) is a collective practice with other residents and local environment, environmental transformation may lead to an alternative choice of practice. Applying game theory, this study formulates the structure of collective practice to analyze the feasibility of local “traditional” and “innovative” practice, the transfiguration process of its ratio, and so on. Moreover, focusing on the different experiences in traditional practice and asymmetric information between old timers (people who have been living in the community since before disaster) and newcomers (people who have emigrated to the community after disaster), this study reveals these effects on the choice of the local practice and proposes the measurement for the coexistence of various practices.
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  • Kiko YAMADA-KAWAI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_255-I_265
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In early stages of planning, interviews and opinions surveys to users and/or experts are often employed. However, the results of these records are not fully integrated to the plan. In this study, we assumed that one of the causes of above mentioned defect is that the records often luck with the subject which is the stakeholders of the target plan, and proposed a method to summarize them as a “scenario” that are one of the measures in Human-centered Design for interactive systems. Analyzing discussion and interview records for the long term plans of Japan Society of Civil Engineers are conducted as a case study. Results of the case study suggest that the proposed scenarios were effectively employed into planning process, while they reflect the original records in terms of number of nouns that appeared in the texts.
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  • Hideki FURUYA, Sangjin ZEN
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_267-I_277
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze characteristics of tourism behavior of Japanese in light of the relations between their preference on daily consumption and tourism behavior. The questionnaire survey was conducted on the internet about demographic attributes, travel activities in the previous year, receiving 11,194 responses. Firstly the segments were identified by principal component analysis and cluster analysis using the daily consumption preference data. High correlation between age and consumption behavior was found. On the other hand, travel segmentation is independent from demographic attributes because of the differences in peoples' intention in the same cohort. Secondly, quantification method type 1 was used to identify factors determining the annual overnight travel frequency. It was found that not only personal income but also segmentation by intention of tourism behavior had an effect on its frequencies. It was found that when peoples' intention for taking travel information is the same, there are two types of tourists. One is frequent tourists using tourism information as the engine of trip activities. The other is not-frequent-tourists. It is considered that time and money constraints, overload of tourism information affect their travel behavior. Furthermore, source of information, travelling companion and the reason for not traveling were also analyzed.
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  • Takuya NISHIMURA, Tomoki ISHIKURA, Hiroyuki ONEYAMA, Shigenori SHIKATA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_279-I_293
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    On planning streets network, it is required to secure traffic function for each street corresponding to its practical usability. In this background, though Space Syntax Theory which enables us quantitatively to evaluate accessibility that differs from emphasized concept on designing streets network like classification and capacity so far is recently pointed out, relation between accessibility of this theory and usability of streets in network is not explained clearly by existent research.
    In this research, we analyze which Integration Value and Betweenness Value which are quantified by Segment Angular Analysis in Space Syntax Theory possess what kind of relations with usability. Result of this research, it are revealed that Integration Value relates with total usability on the street and Betweenness Value relates with diversity of organ and destination of trips using the street.
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  • Hiroshi HIRAI, Gaku TAKEDA, Masaaki MINAMI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_295-I_303
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to examine relationship between shopping environment and frequency of food intake of community residents. We conducted questionnaire survey on available modes of transportation, support from family members, use of delivery service and demographical items in Matsuzono district, Morioka city. Distances from grocery store to address of subjects were measured by using Geographic Information system. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for smallness of food consumption. As a result, sex, family structure, existence of grocery store in walking distance were related to consumption frequency of food intake.
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  • Akihiko KANAI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_305-I_314
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In France, from the beginning of the railway age in the 19th century, many engineers and architects tried to analyse the typologies of station layout. In these analyses, the sandwich type whose departure and arrival facilities were disposed in both sides of tracks, was considered to be standard layout. In France, after the check in, passengers had to stay in waiting rooms and they could enter in the platform only few minutes before the departure. It took almost half century that the free entry system was allowed although this closed system were criticized from the beginning of railway era. After introduction of new system, station layouts were changed. The entrance hall was more important than waiting rooms in the function of the station. The L type and the frontal layouts, that were considered to be flexible for the future extension, were gradually transformed so that they could adapted to the free entry system. In this research, we clarify the mutual influence between the analyses of station layout and the historical transition.
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  • Megumi MASAKI, Daiki KAGAYA, Shintaro TERABE, Makoto KASAI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_315-I_321
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is important to employ more tourism attractions for many cities so as to activate regional industry. The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement on activity of “gourmet gotochi”, local soul food which characterize its own area. The “gourmet gotochi” can be a potential attraction to increase visitors. We prepared our original database including all addresses of those “gourmet gotochi” restaurants in twenty-eight local foods at twenty cities in Japan. We developed both of the accumulation measure and centripetal measure of the restaurants location. The residual analysis on those measures and regression model suggested the positive relationship between “gourmet gotochi” and tourist arrival.
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  • Krairerk KLAYSIKAEW, Hideki FURUYA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_323-I_333
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to identify the tourists' behavior and evaluation characteristics in Ayutthaya, Thailand. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 409 tourists. The content of the questionnaire was two-folded: (1) to identify the behavior and evaluation characteristics of tourists in Ayutthaya, (2) to analyze tourism attractiveness of Ayutthaya. The factor of differences in tourists' behavior and evaluation was found to be determined by their place of residence. Furthermore, through the CS portfolio analysis, the structure of the evaluation difference by place of residence was clarified. In conclusion, for advancing tourism development it is necessary to promote Ayutthaya with the consideration to the target segmentation.
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  • Tsuyoshi HATORI, Chinatsu NAKAGAMI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_335-I_341
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to improve regional communities, residents need to give their voices to solve regional problems. Residents' voices, however, might be aimed to promote not only public benefits of their communities but also their own private benefits only. The purpose of this study was to examine psychological determinants of residents' cooperative and defective voices. For the purpose, a questionnaire survey was conducted targeting 328 residents in Matsuyama city. In this survey, on the basis of social psychological theories such as social dilemmas and complaining behavior, associations between the intention of cooperative or defective voice and psychological variables such as personal norm, place attachment, awareness of privilege, and intention of exit were examined. Given the results, the issues related to regional planning through residents' voices were discussed.
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  • Yoshiki YAMAGATA, Daisuke MURAKAMI, Hajime SEYA, Morito TSUTSUMI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_343-I_351
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One of the principal triggers of industrial agglomeration is the reduction of costs for business trips; business trip data-based analysis seems to furnish a lot of insights about industrial agglomeration. Fortunately, business trip data is provided every 10 years in Tokyo metropolitan area, though, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies have discussed spatial industrial agglomeration using its small zone-level detailed business trip data. This study analyzes spatial industrial agglomeration in the 23 wards of Tokyo utilizing the small zone-level data. Specifically, we first show that the spatial scan statistics, a test statistics of spatial agglomeration, is readily applicable to the business trip data, and, then, spatial industrial agglomerations of the business trips in each industry classification are analyzed by applying the statistics. Besides, we analyze the difference between the agglomerations of the business trips and those of the number of employees too.
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  • Kenichiro MAEOKA, Yusuke KANDA, Takeshi NAKANO, Koichi KUME, Satoshi F ...
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_353-I_369
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Currently, the world faces a vast number of risks such as cyber-attacks, energy crisis, food crisis, pandemic, terror and war. According to the report issued by World Economic Forum, it is pointed out that “Systemic financial crisis” would be the greatest risk that impact on the world and probability of occurrence also tends to increase. In order to find the way to build resilient economy of Japan, early recovery from external shock, this paper analyze what characteristics of nations recovered earlier from the collapse of Lehman Brothers, it means what types of national economy has stronger resilient economy. As a result, expansion of public works investment significantly effects on earlier recovery of GDP, and development of the manufacturing industry and expansion of public works investment significantly effects on earlier recovery of unemployment rate. This paper concludes that increasing public spending such as public works investment is quite effective macroeconomic policy for resilient recovery of GDP and unemployment rate from global risks.
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  • Yu SUZUKI, Kazuhiro KIMURA, Satoru HINO, Yuki KANEKO
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_371-I_382
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this research, we focused and analyzed about elderly people's various of value of shopping , for example “I can change of scenery by shopping” or “I can take in own hand and buy products what I want”, and consciousness of using for support measures of shopping for the weak. As a result, it is shown that many elderly people's feel to need of various of value of shopping. Then, we researched to grasp the number of people who don't be satisfied the various of value of shopping in spite of they need it. And it is also shown that there are gap of achievement of various of value due to use condition of each shops or method of transportation. The elderly people who feel to need of various of value of shopping are extremely aware of the using of each support measures. It seems that there is some possibility of achievement of various of value of shopping for using support measures of shopping. It is important to propose support measures what take account of various of value of shopping for elderly people who can't attain it though feel to need. From now on, we will need to investigate and analyze for elderly people who actually use support measures of shopping.
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  • Yu SUZUKI, Kazuhiro KIMURA, Satoru HINO, Takaomi ORII
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_383-I_393
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In progressing to aging of the population, it is important social problem to maintain or increase their health for elderly people. In this research, we inspected consciousness survey to focus on elderly people's health activity while winter term.
    As a result, it is shown that the awareness of effect is high for example it is good change of scenery by doing health activity. But frequency and detail of health activity while winter have decreased.
    Especially, there are many elderly people who can't walk around vicinage because of snow. The elderly people who can't do health activity well while winter term are answer that “I don't know what sports should I do”, “There is no place to take exercise around vicinage”. It was shown that they are in difficult situation in each side of traffic, information and establishment.
    And the measures that equipment side walk to easy to walk is result they are hoping as for these elderly people.
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  • Keishi TANIMOTO
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_395-I_403
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Going outside activity is considered to contribute to health of elders because it provides the opportunity to exercise their physical and cognitive function. Especially the activity by public transportation is expected to have high contribution. However, the effect of the transportation such as public transportation and car on the functional health, listed by the government for long-term care prevention, has not been studied yet. In this paper, the effect on the functional health of elder is investigated using the data in rural cities.
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  • Tetsuharu OBA, Ryoji MATSUNAKA, Dai NAKAGAWA, Masayuki KITAMURA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_405-I_414
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Shopping streets that were once the center of commercial activity in local areas have declined for various reasons. However, shopping streets have their own value. In this study, to clarify the relationship that vibrancy have with land use composition and business type on shopping streets, we reveal the land use composition and business type in detail for 86 shopping streets in Kyoto city by field survey. Then we quantitatively analyzed the relationship that land use composition and business type with.
    The results indicated that vibrancy have a strong relationship with land use composition and business type on shopping streets. For example, the percentage of grocery stores have a strong relation with pedestrian density. In addition, it is clear that the relationship is different according to the index of vibrancy or the aggregate unit of composition.
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  • Hiroyoshi MORITA, Yoshimi KANAOKA, Hirokazu KATO, Naoki SHIBAHARA, Yos ...
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_415-I_422
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have developed a model to estimate CO2 emissions of residential sector, and organized a CO2 emission database by each detailed attribute which contains family structure, residential type, residential area and transport mode, which is aimed at evaluation of the effect of shift of family structure and dwelling performance. We used this developed model to perform a case study of the Nagoya metropolitan area (within 20km of CBD), and studied effect of technology innovation in houses and home electronics. The results indicate that 1) per capita CO2 emission increase in inner-city district and edge of urban area in 2010, 2) per capita CO2 emission will increase by decrease of household size.
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  • Hirokazu KOHIRA, Naohiko HIBINO, Shigeru MORICHI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_423-I_432
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focuses on the behavior of the tourists who use car. The trend of the behavior is analyzed by the individual data of the tourism statistics. In this paper, the characteristics of each traffic mode by age group, activity in sightseeing area and so on are clarified. In addition, the factors and these effects to car use are illustrated by applying the quantification theory. Furthermore, the time-series change of both the traffic volumes at the interchanges that are located near the major sightseeing areas and these origin areas are shown visually by using the traffic census.
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  • Kazuki OYANAGI, Aya KOJIMA, Hisashi KUBOTA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_433-I_441
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, traffic accident factors at crossings of community roads and arterial roads were analyzed. The authors supposed that if a community road were severed by an arterial road that was built after the community road was built, “the neighborhood DNA”, which is a local characteristics, enhances the risk of the crossing. “the neighborhood DNA” means a habit with the residents in the neighborhood to across an arterial road at a such crossing. The authors define a crossing that was made by an arterial road dividing a community road as a neighborhood DNA type crossing. In the analysis, sudden brake outbreak point data, which were provided from Honda R & D and traffic accident data from Saitama Prefecture Police were used. This study conducted two analyses; one was an analysis on the traffic accidents and the other was an analysis on sudden breaks. In conclusion, it was suggested that neighborhood DNA type crossings are dangerous.
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  • Kenji DOI, Masanobu KII, Toshinori MATSUI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_443-I_452
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Urbanization Control Areas were introduced within the framework of City Planning Act of 1968 for the purpose of preventing unregulated urban expansion due to rapid urbanization. Garden City and Urbanization Control Areas are almost simultaneously introduced as a comprehensive plan and a urban planning method respectively in Kagawa Prefecture. This paper examines the process and impacts of the entire abolition of Urbanization Control Areas in Kagawa Prefecture at 2004, which is unprecedented in Japan. Based on the literature survey and interview survey to the planning experts, it is proved that the abolition was mainly caused by the inconsistency between “Garden City” as a regional planning vision and “Urbanization Control Areas” as a legal planning method. After analyzing the development trends and land use controls after Urbanization Control Areas abolition, the paper indicates the direction of alternative planning systems that are required for the realization of a compact city to encourage the reurbanization of the provincial cities suffering disurbanization problems.
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  • Kazuki NAKAMURA, Masato FUJITA, Hirokazu KATO, Yoshitsugu HAYASHI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_453-I_462
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sustainable transport systems are increasingly required for Asian developing cities where economic growth causes further burden to the environment from urban transport. However, environmental performance is hardly prioritized for their transport policies, and it is therefore necessary to make such transport systems more attractive. This study is aimed at quantitatively evaluating the attractiveness of transport mode in Asian developing cities. With data of a questionnaire survey in Bangkok, it measures the levels of preferences for various attractiveness factors in travel, classifying them into convenience, comfort and safety elements. Using the parameters of preferences, the attractiveness of travel is evaluated for car, conventional bus, and mass rapid transit both for a current situation and potential improvement. The results show that, while the attractiveness varies by income and age, public transport can be as attractive as car by improving the quality of mass rapid transit.
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  • Eisuke DOGAKI, Yoshitaka KAJITA, Norihiko YANASE
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_463-I_475
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, characteristics of the behavior of cars parked on the street with drivers inside were presented using statistical analysis based on a field survey in downtown commercial districts of local cities. Concerning the access function of streets, the Traffic Policy Headquarters formulated several measures in 1988 and 1990. These measures focused on coexistence of several street functions as represented by “promotion of orderly parking on the street.” While this led to the control of cars parked on the street by civilian parking inspectors since 2006, this control with focus on cars parked on the street without drivers inside has resulted in an increase and prolonged hours of parking with drivers in the cars, and caused new problems, such as an increase of the idling of cars parked on the street. Such correlations between parking characteristics were also taken into account in the statistical analysis.
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  • Kazuhiro MIYAZAKI, Naohiko HIBINO, Shigeru MORICHI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_477-I_486
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objective of this study is to understand the current situation of train delay in urban railway services with train traffic records. The study shows the tendency of worsening punctuality based on characteristics of each line, loop line, direct-through line etc. While conducting present data analysis, the study formu-lates a train operation simulation model which reproduces the situation of train operation taking into ac-count the interaction between the trains during the rush hour. Using the simulation model, the influence is shown quantitatively in Yamanote line, if the early departure is carried out. Moreover, the study suggests the present service level will be preserved by the early departure, if the platform screen doors are provid-ed in all the stations of Yamanote line.
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  • Yoko KAWAJIRI, Ryo KANAMORI, Toshiyuki YAMAMOTO, Takayuki MORIKAWA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_487-I_500
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As carsharing services have been expanded by private business operators, this study analyzes carsharing users' behavior in the Nagoya metropolitan area. Using data provided by a carsharing operator, this study reveals the purpose of use by tracking the GPS trajectory and the typical use pattern by cluster analysis. Also considering the regional characteristics, a decision tree model focusing on the discriminant the use purpose was devised. Results show that the use pattern is different between men and women, and that users tend to make a reservation right before use. Furthermore, carsharing is most often used for personal affairs like shopping or leisure.
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  • Toshihiko KITAZAWA, Yasuhiro SHIOMI, Jun TANABE, Yoshiki SUGA, Takeshi ...
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_501-I_508
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances. It is commonly equipped in many kinds of mobile devises such as car navigation system, headsets, mobile phones and smart phones. Because Bluetooth has a unique ID number to each device, which is called as MAC address, it would be possible to measure travel time if MAC address could be monitored and it could be identified among the monitoring sites. Traffic measurement systems using Bluetooth have been studied and partially implemented in many countries, but not in Japan so far.
    This paper investigated the possibility of travel time monitoring on the basis of MAC address detection by using Bluetooth in Japan. We developed a Bluetooth receiver collecting MAC addresses within its out-reach and a system calculating the time difference between the same MAC addresses were monitored at the difference data collection sites. This system was applied to the arterial road network in Osaka city and Hanshin expressway network and validated by using the data collected from traffic detectors.
    As a result, it is revealed that i) it is able to collect 2-7 unique MAC addresses per one minutes in the urban area, though it depends on the data collection site, ii) travel time can be measured by this system every 10 minutes for arterial road network and every 15 minutes for Hanshin expressway, and iii) The travel time measured by the proposed system fits the travel time estimated by using traffic detectors.
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  • Daisuke FUKUDA, Myu ITO
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_509-I_520
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper develops a dynamic discrete-continuous model for analyzing households' multiple vehicle ownership (lightsized vehicle, standard sized vehicle or their combinations) and their usage (vehicle distance travelled per year). The model is calibrated by using Bayesian estimation to explore the determinants of households' mobility decision with a nationwide large-scale panel survey which has been continuously conducted in Japan for years. We find that income and number of female drivers would affect the changes in vehicle ownership pattern (i.e. positive impacts on the propensity to own standard-sized vehicles more than light-sized ones). While state-dependencies among ownership and among usage have been confirmed, a clear correlation structure has not been confirmed between ownership and usage.
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  • Masashi OKUSHIMA, Ayaka ISHII
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_521-I_534
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The global warming problem by greenhouse gas emission has become more serious. Also in the transportation section, clean energy vehicles such as EV or PHV should be promoted as well as the modal shift, since CEV can be moved with the low load to the global environment. However, it is pointed out that the social interaction affects the promotion of CEV. Therefore, the multi agent simulation system for promotion planning of CEV is developed with local interaction process as social conformity in the present study. Intention of holding CEV is described with the database of the questionnaire survey about purchasing Eco-vehicles. On the other hand, the social network of the artificial society is described as the small world network model. According to some scenario, the promotion processes of CEV in the artificial society are observed with the proposed MAS system. Finally, it can be concluded that the proposed multi agent simulation with local interaction is useful for promotion planning of CEV.
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  • Chaoda XIE, Daisuke FUKUDA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_535-I_548
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Given the limitations of new urban railway construction in the Tokyo metropolitan area, a time-varying fare policy is expected to be one of the most effective measures to spread the concentrated peak demand. This paper presents an empirical study that examined the theoretical time-varying marginal utility model introduced by Vickrey (1973), using data on urban rail commuters in Tokyo. Then, the departure-time-choice model, under deterministic user equilibrium, was proposed by integration with the empirically identified time-varying marginal utility model. The outputs of the equilibrium model were compared with the results from the traditional constant marginal utility model; our results indicated that the former outputs would be more suitable for a commuting pattern with longer travel distance, similar to the Tokyo case. The equilibrium scheduling pattern and the first-best pricing strategy were examined; our study showed that the time-varying marginal utility model was capable of capturing the marginal external cost more precisely for travelers with a relatively flexible arrival time.
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  • Masashi OKUSHIMA, Hiroki HORI
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_549-I_557
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The integrated traffic equilibrium assignment model is proposed in the previous research for impact analysis of toll policy on expressway to local city. In the study, the traffic demand and flow in the urban area of Tokushima and surrounding cities are estimated. Therefore, the demand functions between the objective area and the outside area are estimated considering with base site. The demand functions are integrated to the user equilibrium assignment model with variable demand. And also, the parameters of the transport modal split models for the trip to the outside area are estimated. Finally, the impact to the traffic demand for expressway from the outside area and the traffic flow in the objective area can be estimated with the proposed integrated model as well as the influence to the public transport can be analyzed for some typical toll policies.
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  • Hirotaka SEKIYA, Keiji MOROTA, Susumu TAKAMIYA
    2014 Volume 70 Issue 5 Pages I_559-I_568
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 18, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using probe car data obtained for two OD sections (31 km and 19 km) on a national highway over one year, we demonstrate the relationship between volume of probe car data and accuracy of travel time reliability indices calculated from them. Specifically, we create, as sample data sets for testing, OD travel time data sets with partial deficits that lack travel time data for some sections of all OD sections and for some days during evaluation periods. Then, we examine the difference between travel time reliability indices derived from OD travel time data sets with partial deficits and travel time reliability indices derived from those without partial deficits. As a result, we clarify the volume of probe car data required to calculate travel time reliability indices with a certain level of accuracy.
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