Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management)
Online ISSN : 2185-6540
ISSN-L : 2185-6540
Volume 76 , Issue 5
Showing 1-50 articles out of 138 articles from the selected issue
Infrastructure Planning and Management Vol.38 (Special Issue)
  • Daijiro MIZUTANI
    Type: Invited paper
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_1-I_19
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Managers of infrastructure should conduct appropriate asset management to maximise the value of infrastructure. After 2000s, numerous studies have been proposed in terms of infrastructure asset management combined with increase of deteriorated infrastructure, budget cuts and a lack of human resource. In this paper, the asset management research is arranged focusing on advanced methodologies of i) statistical deterioration forecasting with actual inspection data, and ii) optimisation of management policies based on estimated deterioration processes.

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  • Kentaro WADA
    Type: Invited paper
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_21-I_39
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    This paper reviews the recent advances in the theory of dynamic traffic equilibrium assignment problems. We mainly discuss a Lagrange coordinate system approach enabling us to analyze the complex network traffic flows transparently. Two types of description of traffic within the approach—traditional fluid approximation models and emergent atomic/particle models—are explained in comparison. Based on the features and relationships of each model and the results on the mathematical properties of equilibrium solutions, the direction of future developments utilizing the superiority of both models is briefly discussed.

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  • Takumi ASADA, Shigeki IKOMA, Mikiharu ARIMURA, Shuichi KAMEYAMA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_41-I_49
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In this research, we developed a pavement inspection system using an car-mounted camera and a deep learning model, and conducted the inspection on residential roads in Muroran City, and constructed complete survey data. First, a verification test was conducted using the date of road surface inspection survey, and it was clarified that our system has an accuracy equal to or better than the existing method. Next, using the pavement inspection database on the Muroran city, we attempted LCC estimation of pavement maintenance and repair for whole city and deterioration point screening using the pavement inspection database in the city. From these results, it was shown that the effectiveness of the complete survey data constructed by our system.

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  • Takafumi KANNO, Shingo ANDO, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_51-I_59
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    The regional experience seeker concept, which has contributed to regional development from outside local areas, has been attracting attention in recent years. The depth of mutual relations has been defined broadly by the presence and absence, respectively, of visits and activities. However, the ease of involvement might vary depending on the content of the activity and the person performing it. Creation of more seekers is fundamentally important to understand this part of the population. This study classified regional experience seeker activities into four types based on their involvement in the activities. Results demonstrate the following: 1) those engaging in activities that contribute more to a community are more likely to visit the community; also, 2) differences were found in the existence of activities of each type among the eight groups, which consisted of 12 principal component axes considering individual lifestyles.

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  • Masaaki AMMA, Fumihiko SUZUKI
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_61-I_73
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Similar to the practices in the other countries abroad, the establishment of Special Purpose Company and the use of project financing approach is a normal practice for PFI/PPP (“PPPs”) in Japan. Thus, the limited liability for project sponsors seems to be the common principle followed for PPPs in Japan. However, we can find some examples of specific clauses in the PPP agreement and its related contracts, which are not consistent with the principle of such limited liability. This paper reviews the PPP-related contract provisions in comparison with foreign PPPs, analyses the background in Japan, makes analysis of their effect on VFM and proposes possible improvements for standard PPP contracts.

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  • Ryuji KAKIMOTO, Mamoru YOSHIDA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_75-I_83
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Heavy-rainfall in July, 2018 caused inundation and landslide disaster in Western Honshu, Japan, and the toll of death and missing rose to 245. This paper aims to clear the characteristics of evacuation behaviours in the rainfall through a questionnaire survey, focusing on Situation Awareness, to residents exposed to the hazards . As results, it was cleared that among the damaged residents, the only 15% of them actively evacuated with success in situation awareness of official warnings and recommendations, and the 20% of them passively evacuated by direct callings to evacuator or visual confirmation of approaching the hazards, but the others did not evacuate. This result implies it is important to support not only situation awareness of official warnings and recommendations but also to direct callings in communities to make up for the failure of the situation awareness.

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  • Takumi ASADA, Kota KACHI, Mikiharu ARIMURA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_85-I_92
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In this study, we have developed a spatial extraction method for pavement deterioration points in consideration of neighboring residents and repair efficiency for residential roads. Specifically, using data from pavement inspections and housing locations, we conducted to prioritize repair targets based on the pavement crack rate and the spatial distribution of houses. First, using pavement inspection data, it was clarified that the crack ratio has a positive spatial autocorrelation. Next, we introduced the degree of repair necessity considering the proximity of the house, and proposed the diagnostic criteria of priority based on the relationship with the space lag of the crack rate. We applied this method to actual roads and confirmed that areas where pavement deterioration points are gathered are prioritized for repair target. Furthermore, it was shown that the larger the total floor area of neighboring houses, the more the priority points are integrated. If priority points can be extracted spatially in this way, it will contribute to improving the service level for residents, improving the efficiency of repairs, and reducing costs.

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  • Shuntaro ANAMIZU, Keitaro NAKAMURA, Hajime DAIMON, Akinori MORIMOTO
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_93-I_100
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In recent years, local railway lines are in a severe business situation due to a decrease in the number of users. Therefore, many measures have been taken to stimulate the fundamental demand for railways, such as the use of railways themselves as tourist resources, such as the operation of sightseeing trains. In considering such measures, it is necessary to consider not only the concept that traffic time has a negative utility, but also the effect of positive utility that transportation has. Therefore, in this study, among the factors for selecting transportation means, factors that have a positive effect were classified as “primary factors”, and the willingness to pay for those factors was investigated. In addition, taking into account the change in utility depending on the riding time, the positive utility brought by railway use is quantitatively evaluated.

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  • Madoka CHOSOKABE, Masashi KUWANO, Keishi TANIMOTO
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_101-I_111
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    The importance of civic organizations, such as volunteers and community-based groups, is increasing in local communities that face critical issues such as population decline, aging, and risk of natural disasters. However, many organizations have been deficient in manpower. It is necessary to clarify the relationship between the characteristics of the organization and its motives in order to secure continuous participation of members and volunteers. This study asked 13 kinds of questions regarding the motivation of participation for the members in several types of organizations. First, seven characteristics of motives are identified by a factor analysis. Second, similar motives were arranged based on factor scores by a self-organizing map analysis (SOM). Moreover, the results of SOM were divided into eight groups that have characteristic motivations by cluster analysis. The analytical results showed that the differences in motives for participation are based on activities and type of organization. We then clarified that there are organizations where activities are carried out based on various participation motives and organizations where participation motives are scarce.

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  • Satoshi SAEKI, Aya KOJIMA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_113-I_126
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    It is important to present the effect of pedestrian friendly streets on pedestrians and neighborhood residents in order to enhance development of such streets. In this research, the authors focus on the subjective well-being as a part of the effect of pedestrian priority streets. It is said that the subjective well-being has two aspects; one is “hedonia”, which consists of pleasure and comfort and the other is “eudaimonia”, which consists of meaningful life, self fulfilment, feeling of progress and so on. The effects of pedestrian friendly street on the two types of subjective well-being were analysed by questionnaire survey. The authors found that improvement of residential road by traffic safety measures can promote pedestrians’ hedonia and eudaimonia. Furthermore, it is suggested that the involvement of residents in a workshop for traffic safety planning may promote the residents’ eudaimonia.

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  • Daijiro MIZUTANI, Yosuke KAWASAKI, Koki SATSUKAWA, Takeshi NAKAGAWA, S ...
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_127-I_139
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In this study, a basic methodology is proposed to evaluate management policies of variable message signs considering user costs caused by failures. For expressway facilities such as variable message signs, as it is realistic to manage them allowing a certain small number of failures, we are required to appropriately evaluate user costs due to failures. In this study, we estimate failure processes of variable message signs with inspection data, and simply evaluate user costs using actual data assuming that users select routes inefficiently due to failures of variable message signs. Based on those results, the life cycle cost is defined as the sum of management costs and user costs, to quantitatively evaluate management policies. Through those procedures, we found that user costs can change depending on traffic conditions around variable message signs, and that a preventive management policy would be beneficial when the unit replace cost becomes smaller.

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  • Kyoka YOSHIDA, Tomohiro YASUDA, Tatsuhito KONO
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_141-I_153
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    There was a couple of researches pointed out that the residents' trust on embankments and sense of safety might influence the decision making of evacuation from the tsunami caused by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The disaster prevention measures against the Nankai Trough earthquakes and tsunamis are an urgent issue. This study used the data of questionnaire survey conducted in coastal area of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Japan, concerning on residents' awareness of tsunami disaster and tsunami embankment under construction. Cross tabulations were conducted according to the presence or absence of disaster prevention education. In addition, the structural equation modeling (covariance structure analysis) of evacuation decision making was conducted that took into account the recognition to embankment. The results show that although decreasing the risk perception of tsunami increases residents' trust on embankment and feeling of well protected, the perception of embankment has less direct impact on the evacuation decision making. Furthermore, by observing difference in the evacuation decision mechanism depending on the presence or absence of disaster prevention education was taken, the most effective path among the several paths in which disaster prevention education promotes evacuation was the one that directly raises awareness and understanding of disaster prevention.

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  • Hiroaki SHIRAYANAGI, Yukisada KITAMURA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_155-I_163
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    From the viewpoint of evaluation of vulnerability in dense urban area when an earthquake has occurred, we propose the link's passable possibility and node's reachable possibility considering the wooden house's destroying rate and location. So, the change of the vulnerability assessment could be visualized by the continuous elevated railroad project in densely built-up area (Kori area, Neyagawa City, Osaka). As a result, the maximum increasing rate is 98.2% in terms of node's reachable possibility, and the maximum decreasing rate is 73.6% in terms of the expecting access time. Using these indexes and the additional indexes, we will be able to quantitatively evaluate the utility pole removal projects and land readjustment projects. Also, in the future, we would like to propose a measure which part should be prioritized from the viewpoint of disaster emergency, recovery plan and disaster prevention's plan.

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  • Nontachai TITHIPONGTRAKUL, Yoshifumi ISHIKAWA, Jin CHUJO
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_165-I_172
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 caused severe damage in the Tohoku region. The Japanese government and local governments have carried out various recovery and reconstruction projects. However, what effect has the recovery and reconstruction projects have had on the local economy so far? In this study, we analyzed the economic ripple effects of recovery and reconstruction grants on affected regions. The analysis period of this study is from FY 2011 to FY2017. As a result of FY2017, the amount of production induced due to restoration and reconstruction projects in disaster-affected areas is 2.7 trillion yen in total in the disaster-affected areas, 1.3 trillion yen in other parts of Japan, and 4.1 trillion yen in total nationwide. It is due to the economic structure of the region that about one-third of the ripple effects were leaked to other countries. Furthermore, in order to analyze the contribution to gross regional production (GRP) in each region due to the flow effect of restoration and reconstruction projects, we estimated the ratio of GRPs induced by recovery and reconstruction projects to the actual amount of GRP in each living sphere from the amount of production induced. As a result, it became clear that there are regions where the contribution of recovery and reconstruction investment is large and those that do not.

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  • Naoto TANAKA, Kento TAKENAGA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_173-I_183
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In order to developing the disaster prevention awareness from the normal situation against unpredictable and intensifying natural disasters, it is effective to share the dilemma held by the victims in the disaster. The Crossroad game doesn't have only role of relive dilemma and experiences of victims, but also role of share and transmit the dilemma for the future. The purpose of this research is to clarify the architecture in which the dilemma experienced by the victims is shared through “crossroad”, disaster prevention learning materials for transmission of disaster experiences as games. Specifically, the architecture and transmitting process of the dilemma of “Crossroad in Kumamoto” is clarified by analyzing production process and the results of the practice. As a result of the research, the dilemma was mainly divided into three categories; “Selection dilemma”, “Position dilemma” and “Potentially dilemma”, and analysis of the results of play showed that each dilemma has its own characteristics.

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  • Madoka CHOSOKABE, Keishi TANIMOTO, Taichi YOKOYAMA, Masashi KUWANO
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_185-I_192
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In rural areas, where services that support daily living have been reduced and even abolished, it is becoming increasingly necessary for residents to carry out new mutual assistance activities to maintain their living in a village. In general, there are community activities such as village meetings and cleaning activities, and these are thought to be places for fostering a potential willingness to begin new pursuits . However, there are various kinds of village activities, but it is unclear which ones foster a willingness to cooperate. Therefore, in this study, after classifying the activities in a village, we quantitatively analyzed which level of activities contributed to the intention to cooperate with mutual assistance. As a result, we clarified that basic village activities, such as gathering and cleaning, may contribute to future mutual assistance ventures for life support in the area.

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  • Yoshiki WATANABE, Yusuke KANDA, Yusuke SIGEMITSU, Akimasa FUJIWARA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_193-I_208
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In this research, we analyze the characteristics of SNS postings to “transportation services” when a largescale disaster occurs due to the development of transportation policy. On Twitter, we analyzed posts about public transport services in Hiroshima Prefecture, which were hit by the heavy rain in July 2018. As a result, useful and reliable information was transmitted on SNS. In the event of a disaster, information was disseminated regardless of the sender’s popularity, and there were many posts reporting current traffic conditions. We found that the posts were highly credible and that the information was shared while helping each other.

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  • Seiji HASHIMOTO, Sota YAMASHITA, UNO Haruka
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_209-I_220
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In Japan, the “problem of purpose in life” is cited as anxiety in old age, and it has become clear that people who have less frequency of conversation and close relationships with their neighbors do not feel purpose in life. Therefore, in this study, we used the Sense of Life Awareness Scale (Ikigai-9) and focused on the use of SNS in communication to understand the relationship with purpose in life. As a result of creating a model with the purpose in life score as objective variable, it has shown that satisfaction with face-to-face communication is an important factor that constitutes purpose in life regardless of whether or not SNS is used. In addition, it has revealed that for people who a face-to-face communication frequency is more than one day a week, satisfaction with the most motivated SNS has a great influence on the purpose in life score. So it has suggested that the use of SNS is complementary to face-to-face communication and it could play a role and become a component of purpose in life.

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  • Suil PARK, Hirokazu KATO, Kazuya NAGAO
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_221-I_232
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, the vulnerability of the energy supply has become a major challenge. Therefore, the importance of securing the energy supply in the occurrence of a disaster, simultaneously with the realization of a low-carbon society has been recognized. In this study, we developed and evaluated a model for renewing built-up areas that can achieve both decarbonization and securing energy supply in the event of a disaster. We applied the model to local cities and evaluated the effectiveness of the introduction of various policy scenarios. As a result, it was found that urban facility location plan scenarios generally bring a trade-off relationship between low carbonization and energy supplies. However, it becomes clear that the effect on the emergency energy supply rate and CO2 emissions can be further enhanced by introducing a distributed energy system, that takes into consideration the appropriate land use mixes when conducting location guidance measures.

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  • Yuto NAKAZATO, Daijiro MIZUTANI, Makoto OKUMURA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_233-I_240
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    To repair road pavements in work zones, it is expected to reduce the fixed work zone/repair cost per single continuous work zone, by simultaneously conducting repairs to spatially neighboring pavement sections within a single continuous work zone. Furthermore, if a pavement section, whose condition state does not reach the control limit but deteriorates, is located near a pavement section to repair, work zones in different time points can be consolidated into a single continuous work zone, by repairing those pavement sections in a single continuous work zone. In this study, we formulate an optimization problem of spatio-temporal repair synchronization policies for small-scale road pavements. Then, in a numerical study, we discuss the effectiveness of the spatio-temporal synchronization policy by comparing an independent policy, a spatial synchronization policy, and a spatio-temporal synchronization policy. The numerical study also includes a sensitivity analysis in terms of the fixed work zone/repair cost.

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  • Shunta AOKI, Hajime SEYA, Hideyuki KITA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_241-I_248
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    While conducting social choices, it is preferable that each individual does not pursue personal gain based on individual preferences, but instead makes public judgments from a standpoint of how society should be. However, much is unclear with respect to how public judgments arise. Therefore, in the context of local public transport, this study experimentally clarifies the factors for arriving at public judgments using an SP survey and aims to obtain empirical findings to encourage making public judgments. Specifically, individual opinions regarding social choice are obtained under hypothetical conditions and, by making estimates using a latent class logit model, we attempt to specify groups that emphasize either self-interest or interest in others. Furthermore, this study suggests that respondents with a high degree of sympathy and commitment to others may easily conduct public judgments and that providing narrative information about others may elicit such judgments.

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  • Kenji MORITA, Kazuki NAKAMURA, Yuuta MORISHIMA, Akito KATOU
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_249-I_258
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    It is necessary to significantly change the ideal way of road space improvement in order to realize Walkable City in car-oriented sprawl development city. In order to carry out this discussion, visualization of its future vision is important. CG, a visualization technology, can create high-quality 3D space at a low cost by improving the performance of computers and software and creating cloud design elements. In addition, the development of VR technology that virtual-experience of space is progressing. Among them headmounted displays that enhance the immersive feeling of space are generally available. But, it is not clear how CG and VR tools are effective for walking space evaluation. In this study, we analyzed the influence change of freedom of viewpoint and street space design on the evaluation of walking space. As a result, the static CG design element has high impacts on the evaluation for street design to stay, and VR further enhances the evaluation sensitivity of safety and attractiveness.

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  • Yuma MORISAKI, Makoto FUJIU, Ryoichi FURUTA, Junichi TAKAYAMA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_259-I_266
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In Japan, large-scale earthquake disaster occurs frequently. When a large-scale earthquake disaster occurs, it becomes difficult to collect the victim’s needs and location. In addition, mobile phone and disaster prevention application cannot be used during large-scale earthquake disaster. Especially for vulnerable people, it is necessary to examine their location and needs. In this study, several reflectors with different backscattering coefficients that are observable by SAR satellites are developed. It is assumed that the reflectors will be installed by vulnerable people after the large-scale earthquake disaster. Result of analysis, reflectors with a base diameter of 50 cm and a height of 25 cm was shown to be desirable.

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  • Kosuke TANAKA, Taiga SAKAMOTO, Hideki YAGINUMA, Shintaro TERABE
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_267-I_279
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Among the developed countries, only Japan tends not to expand its public works expenditures. This can be attributed to the influence of negative public opinion on public works. The purpose of this study is to understand people’s attitudes toward public works in Japan and the United States. This paper focuses on social networking services (SNS) that allow individuals to transmit information freely, and among them, we target Twitter, which has many users in both Japan and the United States. We analyzed tweets related to public works and infrastructure for about a year from early July 2018. In order to understand what people are resonating with, we focused not only on the number of tweets, but also on the number of likes. As a result, Japan’s interest in public works and infrastructure development is heightened by disasters, fraud, and budgeting. On the other hand, there has been little sudden interest in the United States. In the US, there was no criticism such as civil engineering bashing in Japan.

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  • Shuji OSAWA, Makoto FUJIU, Jyunichi TAKAYAMA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_281-I_296
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Based on cases of road damage in recent natural disaster, it is pointed out necessity of road network assessment method for disaster prevention planning which considering various possibility of road damage. In this research, two types of road network assessment index based on Osawa et al.(2018) was developed. One index focusing link which has possibility of decreasing number of total hazardous points on all routes that connect disaster prevention base while another focusing importance of link which passes through many routes that connect important disaster prevention base. Validities of proposed indexes was verifying by case study using Ishikawa prefecture emergency transport road network. As a result of this case study, it has been confirmed that the candidate links for disaster prevention measures may change depending on disaster prevention policy. In addition, it is pointed out that appropriate selection of road assessment method is required for each disaster prevention policy.

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  • Takahiro MINAMI, Makoto FUJIU, Tomotaka FUKUOKA, Junichi TAKAYAMA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_297-I_304
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In Japan, there is a discussion about the replacement or extension of the service life of the bridges built during the rapid economic growth period, which are now reaching the end of their planned service period. As issues with the continuing close visual inspection of bridges are surfacing, the remote imaging system is expected to become a new inspection method that replaces close visual inspection. Although the automation of the creation of the data of damage has been achieved, the automation of the diagnosis of the soundness level has not been performed. In this research, we proposed a method to extract the feature quantity of damage from the damage map in the past inspection result by using image analysis such as pattern matching. In addition, the damage affecting the diagnosis was clarified by performing the decision tree analysis with the extracted feature quantity of the damage as the explanatory variable and the diagnosis result of the damage level and the generation factor as the objective variable.

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  • Yoichi KANAYAMA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_305-I_316
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Japanese railway development and operation schemes have been based on the initiative of private sector operators, so they have been successful in large cities, but their limits have appeared. In local cities, management is difficult, service levels are low, and some lines have been abolished. In recent years, local governments have begun to implement vertical separation as a subsidy expansion measure, but the service level is insufficient. The idea of my doctoral dissertation, which I completed in 2005, is a Japanese version of a vertical separation method that balances public interest and management efficiency by utilizing a vibrant private railway operator without causing moral hazard. It is adopted as a framework for Act on Enhancement of Convenience of Urban Railways, etc. Law number: Act No. 41, which was enacted in 2005 as the only public privatization law for urban railways in Japan. In this paper, I deepened and rearranged the concept of my doctoral dissertation, and showed that it is extremely versatile for all railway development issues in metropolitan areas. On the other hand, it was also clarified that in Japan, there is a problem of incentive to use the system because it requires a paradigm shift. Next, I made clear that the idea of the doctoral dissertation could be applied to railway issues in local cities.

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  • Nobuhiko MATSUMURA, Momoka KANETO, Yuka KATAOKA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_317-I_325
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    This study aims to identify the actual situation of disaster prevention in accommodation facilities and previous thinking and actions in dealing with disasters. A questionnaire survey was conducted targeting accommodation facilities in Ehime Prefecture regarding the response to the heavy rain in July 2018. Survey items were set using the frameworks of social learning theory. As a result, it became clear that the higher the result expectation for support during a disaster and higher the sense of self-efficacy, the more respondents tended to have high intentional support actions. Also, facilities that took responsive actions during a disaster was more likely to have higher result expectation and the sense of self-efficacy, which showed that track records of support activities increased the intentions to take supportive actions. Further, facilities that participated in resident activities around the facility were more likely to respond to a disaster. Therefore, the results suggested that increasing social capital was effective in taking action during an emergency.

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  • Keigo OKANO, Ryo TAKAHASHI, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_327-I_338
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Shopping environments must be enhanced while responding to declining population as purchase environments change along with the progress of new technologies. However, purchase environment evaluation depends on individual values. Therefore, this study was conducted to obtain reference information for future purchase environments, with specific examination of ‘generations’ which share certain values. We compared satisfaction with the purchase environment using three axes: age group, generation, and time. Then we considered factors affecting behavior and consciousness. Results show differences not only for items purchased and age groups, but also for tracking age groups and tracking generations. Therefore, understanding not only quantitative and objective factors, but also qualitative and subjective factors based on individual values is necessary to understand the purchase environment.

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  • Yoshiho TANAKA, Tetsuji SATO
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_339-I_351
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In this paper, we analyzed the effect of infrastructure on increase in productivity (total factor productivity, marginal productivity of private capital stock and marginal productivity of labor) after the high economic growth period in Japan by estimating various type of production function for each period, industry, category of infrastructure and definition of infrastructure stock. We estimated panel data on the same basis for 47 prefectures from 1955 to 2015 of production, private capital stock, the number of workers, the rate of private capital utilization, the average working hours for each industry and infrastructure. And we used these data for the estimation of production functions. As a result of the analysis, it is indicated that whether or not there is the effect of infrastructure depends on period, industry, category of infrastructure, definition of infrastructure stock and type of production function. And it is also indicated that the effect of infrastructure on increase in total factor productivity in the 3rd industry continues to exits after 2000 in Japan.

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  • Takeshi MATSUSHITA, Akinori KITSUKI, Shunsuke MANAGI
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_353-I_358
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    It is argued that GDP is not a sufficient indicator that captures regional level of welfare. This paper measures regional inclusive welfare by using the utility maximization theory of microeconomics. Following the framework suggested by Jones and Klenow (2016), this paper extends GDP by taking leisure and inequality into consideration. This extended GDP is applied to Japanese prefectures and cities. We show a large difference between traditional GDP and extended GDP in spite of its positive correlation. We also show that there differences mainly comes from leisure times, instead of inequality. To capture multidimensional welfare of regions, we should pay more attention to residents’ leisure time.

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  • Hiroki SHIMIZU, Riku TAKEDA, Sou OKUMURA, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_359-I_368
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    With a falling birthrate, an aging society, and a shrinking population, unprecedented urban difficulties related to vacant residences, financial deterioration, and facility withdrawal are progressing. Although various efforts have been undertaken to address these difficulties individually, no cross-sectional, comprehensive overview has been reported. For this study, we first categorized cities from past to present into cities with similar difficulties using indicators for respective urban problems. Next, we aggregated changes in categories of cities across the country over time. Results show several urban problem progression patterns associated with declining and aging populations. Results clarify a pattern of urban problem progression according to the aging of people and buildings, which are designated collectively as “city aging”. Results also demonstrate that most cities in Japan show patterns of progressive difficulty.

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  • Hirotoshi SHIRAYANAGI, Shinya KURAUCHI, Takahiro TSUBOTA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_369-I_376
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In this study, it was hypothesized that unintentional gaze bias toward shop facades would affect preference judgments, and this hypothesis was verified in a laboratory experiment. The preference for shops to which one’s gaze is directed is increased during the walking shop street. It has been shown that gaze bias is unintentionally directed toward the target that is to be preferred just previous to the preference judgment, and it has been suggested that such unintentional gaze bias may increase the preference for the target. In this study, it was examined whether the gaze is unintentionally biased toward the preferred shop facade image just previous to the judgment of preference and the effects of unintentional gaze bias towards the shop facade image that is to be preferred on shop facade preference were investigated based on a two-alternative forced-choice task. The results shows that gazes were unintentionally biased toward the shop facade images that were judged to be preferable just previous to the judgment of preference, and that unintentional gaze bias increased the confidence of preference judgments.

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  • Mio HOSOE, Masashi KUWANO, Taku MORIYAMA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_377-I_384
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In the public transit navigator system, the user’s travel demands, such as the requested departure place and destination place and what time to move, are recorded as log data. However, the log data don’t include information of user’s attributes and their travel purpose. Therefore, it is not possible to clarify what kind of people travel for what purpose from the log data. This study analyzes the user’s attributes and their travel purpose from the relationship between travel demands on the log data and characteristics around railway station. Specifically, this study uses the log data of “NAVITIME”, which is a public transit navigator system introduced in Japan, and expresses travel demands. Characteristics around railway station are expressed by population data and facility’s location data. Then, this study constructs the model by using Bayesian tobit quantile regression with adaptive lasso penalty. From the estimation results of the model, it is confirmed that inhabitants and tourists use public transit navigator system for nonsteady travel purpose such as shopping, attending a hospital and sightseeing.

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  • Syuji YOSHIKI, Hiroshi TATSUMI, Kayoko TSUTSUMI, Kosuke SAKAI, Kaori N ...
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_385-I_396
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    It is important to improve various child-rearing facilities in order to create a city that is easy to raise children. On the other hand, in Japan, where the population is declining, public kindergartens have been closed due to a lack of capacity. It has been difficult to maintain these facilities. While various factors influence whether a facility will be maintained or not, population size is considered to be one important factor. Information on the population size of child-rearing facilities will be important for each municipality to draw its future urban vision with the declining birth rate. Therefore, this study investigated the population size and location of facilities in each municipality in Japan. The results show the population sizes for child-rearing facilities establishment and the increased risk of closure or exit in the future.

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  • Akiyoshi NII, Kazutaka OKADA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_397-I_407
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    This paper aims to develop planning methods that achieve both flood protection and urban regeneration. For that purpose, we clarified features of realize processes and planning, design about Würzburg’s flood protection project cooperated with riverside streets and buildings, highly rated in Germany. And we considered factors for realized both flood protection and attractive river-city spaces. As a result, pointed out the following six points are important. 1) levee line utilizing the characteristics of city behind , 2) mobile levees and door type levees that connect river and city, 3) levees Integrated with buildings that creates lively riverfronts, 4) aesthetic design of levee to enhance the quality of the landscape, 5) reorganization of urban space linked with flood protection project, 6) Cooperation/collaboration system between river manager and basic municipality.

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  • Megumi KAGAWA, Hirotoshi SHIRAYANAGI, Shinya KURAUCHI, Toshio YOSHII
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_409-I_416
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In this study, it was hypothesized that visual links to the river would affect attachment towards the river, and this hypothesis was verified through a questionnaire survey. In order to promote rapid evacuation of residents at the time of a flood, it is necessary to develop awareness of flood disaster prevention. In order to develop awareness of disaster prevention, it is a necessary to have attachment towards natural capital, and this attachment is developed by recalling memories that were related to that capital. Although memory in relation to natural capital is suppressed by the fear of disaster, this suppression may be reduced by ensuring a visual link to the capital. In this study, the effects of visual links to the river on residents' memories of the river and the effects of such memories on their attachment to the river were examined. The results showed that residents with fear of disasters were more likely to recall the river as their visual link to the river was better assured, and their attachment towards the river increased as they recalled more of the river.

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  • Takahide TERAKUCHI, Shin-ichi SAKURAI, Masahiro SAITO
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_417-I_423
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In recent years, floods due to unexpected heavy rain have been occurring one after another, and a review of regional disaster prevention plans has been required. The current regional evacuation plan is prepared by each municipality, and it is assumed that the citizens will use the evacuation shelter of the municipality where they live. However, in areas between rivers and municipal boundaries, there are evacuation districts where the citizens cannot go to own municipal evacuation center without crossing rivers that are likely to overflow will be identified. In this study, evacuation difficulties were extracted from map analysis of areas affected by heavy rains in western Japan, and it was clarified that the evacuation difficulties correspond to 33 in 26 municipalities in Chugoku district and Hyogo prefecture. Of these, 11 areas were evacuation centers without having to cross rivers if evacuation shelters in neighboring municipalities were available, but questionnaire surveys with local governments showed that only three evacuation sites were actually encouraging wide-area evacuation. In addition to staying in the districts, there were many places where there were no special measures, although they were recognized as evacuation difficult areas, indicating the need to promote wide-area evacuation in cooperation with municipalities in future disaster prevention plans.

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  • Tomohiko SAKATA, Atsushi SUZUKI, Nao SIGIKI, Toshiyuki MASAKI, Hiroyuk ...
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_425-I_435
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    The purpose of this study is to propose an estimation method of initial micro data which greatly shortens the calculation time of error correction and enables more accurate estimation than the method of Tsuru et al. (2019). In order to verify the effectiveness of the calculation algorithm for generating this initial micro data, we implemented the calculation algorithm in Python and conducted verification using open data in Toyama City, Toyama Prefecture. As a result, the calculation time was about 15 minutes, and the calculation time was dramatically shortened.

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  • Yuki KAWASHIMA, Satoshi NAKAO, Ayako TANIGUCHI, Kentaro MINAMITE
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_437-I_449
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In recent years, with the development of technology, automatic driving systems (hereinafter referred to as AVs) are being put to practical use. One of the issues in practical use is development of social acceptance. One approach to studying social acceptance of AVs, a new transportation system, is to investigate the acceptance process when new traffic modes have appeared in the past. In this study, we selected programs that express the relationship between cars and people from programs aired on NHK during the period of high economic growth, and examined their contents to clarify the attitudes of people to cars at that time. The purpose is to do. In particular, pay attention to the negative aspect of “traffic accidents” and qualitatively understand what people at the time perceived as cars, that is, how social acceptance of cars was made.

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  • Takumu ISHIKAWA, Makoto OKUMURA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_451-I_460
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In Japan, over-concentration of various functions in Tokyo has been indicated for a long time and transportation network has been developed to solve the problem, but Shinkansen development impact isn't proved clearly. In this research, we will focus on Shinkansen development impact on business structure of a corporation on a national basis by changing traffic condition between cities. We will analyze Hokuriku Shinkansen development impact on business structure of a representative corporation having different feature by an optimal business organization model, then showed that it may add higher layer branch office in Hokuriku region, in case of summarizing function of branch office is modest.

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  • Akiyoshi TAKAGI, Yoshifumi ISHIKAWA, Kakeru YASUDA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_461-I_471
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In recent years, cases of introducing local currency as part of regional revitalization measures have been increasing in Japan. The purpose is to circulate the money flowing out of the region within the region. However, the actual economic effect has not been quantitatively grasped. In this study, we try to evaluate economic effects on Takayama City of the local currency “Sarubobo Coin” used in the Hida region of Gifu Prefecture with the interregional input-output model developed by Ishikawa et al. As a result, when the current distribution amount of the local currency “Sarubobo Coin”, which is equivalent to 200 (million yen) is reflected, we estimated that the regional production value increases by 313 (million yen), of which the income increases by 108 (million yen), that is an economic effect of 1.6 times the circulation distribution amount of the local currency on Takayama City. When the regional consumption coefficient of all 64 sectors rises from the current 90% to 95%, we estimated that the regional production increases by 27,600 (million yen), of which the income increases by 10,201 (million yen), that is an economic effect equivalent to 4.4% of the current value of regional production on Takayama City.

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  • Syota FUJIWARA, Haruna SUZUKI
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_473-I_483
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    This study examined the attributes and effects of residents’ “subjective regional vitality (SRV)” using regional image theory. We hypothesized a causal relationship between the residents’ regional image and SRV, and the causal effect of SRV on residents’ psychological state. Candidate items for the regional image scale were made by analyzing newspaper texts, and a questionnaire survey was conducted on those items and psychological scales such as place attachment. Five factors were extracted from the factor analysis of the candidate local image scale items. Path analysis was conducted to examine the attributes of SRV, and the results showed that three factors, “social capital image,” “regional identity,” and “regional population characteristics,” may influence on SRV. Regression analysis was conducted to examine the effect of SRV on the psychological scale, and the results showed that SRV had effect on the psychological scale.

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  • Yu SUZUKI, Satoru HINO, Yuya MAEDA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_485-I_494
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    In this study, the driver’s license return and the image of the holder of the driver’s license were compared. As a result, it became clear that the driver’s license holder had a bad impression. It turns out that everyday life after returning a driver’s license isn’t as bad as it was before returning it. From these, it is considered that once experiencing the life after returning the driver’s license is effective in promoting the voluntary return of the driver’s license. When we constructed a structural model of driver’s license repayment awareness, we found that good and bad impressions affect driver’s license repayment awareness. We believe that making a good impression on your life after returning your license will lead to the voluntary return of your driver’s license.

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  • Tomoya ISHIBASHI, Seiryu TANAKA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_495-I_505
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Many problems have been pointed out in the slope area of Nagasaki City, such as the delay in the development of urban infrastructure and population decline. On the other hand, the night view peculiar to the slope is positioned as a landscape resource of Nagasaki City, and so on. It is important to deal with slopes. In this study, we focus on the first to fourth masterplans that have been formulated in the past, and we focus on the the influence of topographical features on the description of the masterplan by organizing the transitions in the perception of slopes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following. Specifically, we extracted all the descriptions of the slopes in each plan and conducted a quantitative analysis of the descriptions and the transitions in the content of the descriptions in each period were analyzed. As a result, we were able to structure the description of the slope of Nagasaki City, and we pointed out that the masterplan of Nagasaki City is composed of three periods, based on the transitions in the way of understanding the slope.

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  • Atsushi KOIKE, Nozomu TAKAMURA, Masato YAMAZAKI, Toshimori OTAZAWA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_507-I_514
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    Most of domestic freight are carried by cars, where roads play vital roles. In assessing transportation facilities such as roads, values of time is the significant index, where time is evaluated in terms of money. The value of freight travel time savings (VFTTS) have been defined and estimated based on opportunity costs of factors or willingness-to-pay for reducing transportation time. However, these are microscopic approaches which deal with each instance. Moreover, conventional methods cannot analyze the effects of specific conditions on VFTTS, such as disruptions of the supply chains right after natural disasters. A new methodology is required to understand roles of roads and plan them properly. In this study, it is hypothesized that freight transportations affect society and the economy through logistics and supply chains. VFTTS is newly defined by using the increment of economic welfare and the decrement of total freight transportation time caused by road improvements. To calculate these variables, a standard spatial computable general equilibrium model which assumes perfect competition is used. Moreover, parameters are set exogenously to reproduce the disaster on the model, which enables us to measure VFTTS right after natural disasters. These parameters in case of emergency had been estimated in a previous study to reproduce the damage of the Great East Japan Earthquake. As the results of simulation, it has been clarified that previous studies ignored the ripple effects and underestimated VFTTS. Moreover, it has demonstrated that VFTTS would rise right after natural disasters.

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  • Masayuki OCHIAI, Tomohide OKADA, Yuuki KOBAYASHI
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_515-I_522
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    The purpose of this study is to clarify the operational status and the important points of the development process of “warehouse renovation” utilizing idle warehouses in Japanese ports. This study was conducted a data survey and a hearing survey on the utilization of renovation warehouses, targeting 106 ports registered in “Minato Oasis” under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. As a result, this study clarified the following: (1) the trend of the registration of Minato Oasis and the use of idle warehouses from the view of port status , (2) the development process and the important points of “warehouse renovation” in port of Oita.

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  • Chise NISHIWAKI, Makoto OKUMURA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_523-I_529
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    After the 1960 Chilean Tsunami, Japanese countermeasures showed tendency to concentrate to the structural ones, although some experts then understood the importance of non-structural ones, such as moving to the higher ground. This paper analyses the articles in the domestic newspapers of those days. And revealed that there was no place to reflect the opinions of some experts invoking the non-structural countermeasures, although they concerned to the decision process of Prefectural countermeasures. And also found the reason was the growth-oriented policy of the Miyagi Prefectural government.

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  • Ibuki HIGUCHI, Tomohide OKADA, Yousuke TAJIMA, Hiroyuki SAMIZO, Norihi ...
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_531-I_543
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    The waterfront development of Japan was promoted by the “21SEIKI ENO KOUWAN” (Ideal ways of port space revitalization for the 21st century) published by the Ministry of Transport in 1985. The waterfront development of Japan has passed for 30 years since that publication. And It is important to evaluate waterfront development projects over 30 years. Therefore this study clarified the realization status of the planned facilities established at the beginning of the waterfront development by analyzing the main surveys (the port renaissance 21 survey, the marine town project survey) conducted to determine the policy of waterfront development.

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  • Yasuaki MATSUDA, Satoshi KASAMA, Keiji TAMIYA
    2021 Volume 76 Issue 5 Pages I_545-I_555
    Published: 2021
    Released: April 20, 2021
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    The attractive landscapes can be essential tourism resources. Above all, the scenery viewed from the road dramatically affects the impression of the area. Thus, many political measures utilize the roadscape as a tourism resource, mainly in Europe and the United States. However, in Japan, the attractive regional landscapes have not been fully utilized due to insufficient consideration of the landscape for road spaces. One of the reasons for this is that the importance of the roadscape has not been taken into consideration in administrative planning. In this study, we examined the issues regarding the utilization of roadscapes as a tourism resource based on the national survey of the status of the designation of the Road of Landscape Importance in the landscape planning, which had been conducted based on the Landscape Act, and the questionnaire survey of municipalities in Hokkaido. As the result, we clarified the problems, for instance, that the administrations of rural areas with attractive roadside scenery have not considered the roadscapes in their planning, and that such administrations have not fully understood the benefits of the designation as the Road of Landscape Importance to the regional tourism.

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