Markov chain assignment (MCA) has been gathering attention in recent years again because of its high operability. However, MCA remains following challenges; 1) unreasonable cyclic flow, 2) computational instability in case of network with low cost cycles and 3) amplification of IIA property of the logit model. This paper proposes an assignment algorithm in time-structured network (TSA). Incorporating the concepts of time-constraint and network structuring into the MCA model can restrict a path set and remove cyclic structures in networks. Numerical examples including its application to the stochastic user equilibrium showed that TSA algorithm solved the problem regarding the computational instability and also relaxed cyclic flows. Moreover, the result of its extension to the network-GEV model indicated that TSA can describe the cycle reluctancy.
The practices of bridge management tend to be poor in local municipalities due to budget limitation as well as lack of in-house engineers. Thus, it is not realistic to expect that all jurisdictions work the best-shot asset management being equipped with deterioration forecasting and life cycle cost evaluation. Instead, it is more feasible and plausible to develop a profiling methodology for their bridge management; bridges are categorized into a few groups based upon bridge and failure characters, and maintenance and rehabilitation strategies are standardized for the respective bridge groups. In this paper, the heterogeneity in deterioration speeds is investigated made by use of mixed Markov deterioration hazard model, and a systematic methodology is presented to profile bridges maintenance strategies with reference to differences in deterioration speeds. A case study conducted for national highways in Kinki region is also illustrated in the paper.
This study incorporates the standard bottleneck model into the traditional residential location model to develop a model in which heterogeneous commuters choose their residential locations and departure times from home in a monocentric city. We characterize its equilibrium with and without congestion tolling and clarify that introducing an optimal congestion toll alters the urban spatial structure. Furthermore, we demonstrate through examples that congestion tolling can lead to urban sprawl. This result contrasts with the standard results of traditional residential location models with static flow congestion, which predict cities to become denser with road pricing.
Although spatial computable general equilibrium model is a convenient tool for transport project appraisal, the application of the model to transport improvement project in metropolitan area requires to consider agglomeration externality. The difficulty of calibration of the model due to lack of sufficient data for detailed classified region is also the issue to tackle with. This paper builds a spatial computable general equilibrium model based on Dixit-Stiglitz type monopolistic competition model, which features agglomeration effects explicitly. We also propose the procedure for the model application to multi-regional economy classified into municipality level. We firstly estimate the parameters using the trade data for multi-regional economy classified into larger-scaled region which is relatively easy to get. Pseudo Poisson Maximum Likelihood method gives more desirable estimation results than OLS approach. The estimated parameters are imported to the detailed classified multi-regional economy and the model calibration to the benchmark data for Tokyo Metropolitan Area is implemented. We then apply the model to the circular expressway project scenario, including virtual policy scenarios, and investigate the aspects of spatial distribution of benefit.