Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management)
Online ISSN : 2185-6540
ISSN-L : 2185-6540
Volume 68 , Issue 5
Showing 1-50 articles out of 134 articles from the selected issue
Infrastructure Planning and Management Vol.29 (Special Issue)
  • Morito TSUTSUMI, Hajime SEYA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_1-I_20
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Applied spatial statistics mainly involves the application of spatial statistical and spatial econometric techniques, and it is an excellent tool for modeling geospatial data. Spatial statistics, which includes elements of geostatistics, originated from mining engineering, and spatial econometrics originated from regional science. The recent advancements in the field of geographic information systems (GIS) have provided researchers and practitioners access to detailed spatial datasets and have allowed them to apply the abovementioned techniques to socioeconomic data. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no significant reviews on the empirical application of these techniques. Hence, the purpose of this study was to review literatures on the empirical application, especially in infrastructure planning. This paper also discusses the future direction of applied spatial statistics in detail.
    Download PDF (957K)
  • Keita YAMAGUCHI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_21-I_33
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article aims at developing the practical theory of community-based landscape planning and management in local milieu based on Mesologie expanded by Augustin BERQUE and Nobuo KIOKA. Firstly, I summarized the points of Mesologie as the theoretical foundation, and described the notion of “Sustainable Landscape” in local milieu. Secondly, I enunciated the practical theory of “narrative-based” landscape planning and management on the logical foundation of the epistemological framework of KIOKA to manage discovering and sharing the landscape value. Finally, I dealt with trajectivitet, which represent the mutual relations between representation and construction of the landscape, by means of conducting historical case studies on landscape valuing and constructing, and seeking the possibility of symbolizing the landscape in a tacit living and practice.
    Download PDF (780K)
  • Maki ARAME, Eizo HIDESHIMA, Koji KANDA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_35-I_43
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Safety education in childhood may force the students to have the safety mind over the lifetime and to practice some counteraction at critical situation. However, because of the lack of the education method and teaching materials or other reasons, such training or an education is not necessarily executed in elementary and junior high schools. In this study, the participatory learning using video material as a scaffolding was practiced to the Internet safety education under the cooperation of a public junior high school in Tokyo. As the result, the use of a video material contributed the scaffolding for preparedness for the safety. Moreover, the possibility of improving the sense of participation to the safety training in the future was suggested.
    Download PDF (469K)
  • Masataka MIYAKI, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_45-I_54
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Along with promoting the decentralization of power, it is becoming common to address policies using Plan-Do-Check-Action (PDCA): a new situation has been created for local governments to set their own targets for policies in various areas independently and to evaluate themselves. Sufficient studies have not been performed to elucidate whether the accumulation of PDCA by this self-evaluation actually engenders proper implementation of policies. This study examines community renovation grants, which are used in various fields of community design throughout Japan and which have held PDCA as the requirement, and answers the question by examining trends toward self-evaluation of local governments comprehensively. We define the difference between an actual evaluation value and a target value as of the evaluation date as a divergence coefficient and analyzed them. Results show for the first time reported, the distinctive trends and problems in adaption and achievement of evaluation indicators depending on policy areas.
    Download PDF (544K)
  • Atsushi KOIKE, Keisuke ITO, Takuya NAKAO
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_55-I_61
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The interregional elasticities of substitution –Armington elasticities– are estimated in this paper for Japan. The estimated elasticities are intended for use in a large, empirically based Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (SCGE) model of Japanese economy. Armington elasticities are known to be important for the properties of these models but are seldom estimated empirically. The results of this paper suggested that estimation is possible for Japan, for which economic data are generally considered poor, provided appropriate account is taken of the dynamic properties of the data.
    Download PDF (488K)
  • Kiyomine TERUMOTO
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_63-I_74
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tsunami evacuation measures are now an urgent issue in Japanese coastal area. One of important actions for the mitigating damages is the evacuation drill. However past tsunami evacuation drills mostly have not been supposed seismic disaster damage condition. Though, after big earthquake, residents in tsunami inundation estimated area might be needed to evacuate any safety zone in the situation of any damages attacked by seismic motion. Therefore, a practical evacuation drill was carried out in Kuroe and Hunoo district of Kainan City. This area is the tsunami inundation estimated area against the Nankai Earthquake. In the evacuation drill, it was assumed that some roads and evacuation sites were blocked, and there were injured persons and vulnerable people. This paper examined regional evacuation problems and residents' perceptions of these risks and the evacuation drill. The possibility and problems of the evacuation drill was also discussed.
    Download PDF (3023K)
  • Masanobu KII, Kenji DOI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_75-I_85
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, a strategic cross-assessment method is developed for transport policy formulation at local regions which is facing depopulation and aged society. The cross assessment method aims to support the discussion for direction of integrated policy by comprehensive impact analysis. This method is applied to the public transport policy in Shikoku region for the time range by 2035, and the outcomes are analyzed for the land-use and public transport policies and the difference of the impact among municipalities are assessed.
    From the analysis, it is found that 1) public financial support will have to be doubled to maintain the current service level of public transport in future, 2) improvement of fiscal balance of transport operator and CO2 emission reduction can be achieved together, but higher user's benefit and better fiscal standing of transport operation have trade-off relationship, and 3) urban compaction and high speed rail will be effective on higher benefit and improvement of fiscal balance of public transport, and there is synergistic effect between them.
    Download PDF (911K)
  • Gaku INOUE
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_87-I_101
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The central and local governments' incentives to invest in public infrastructure and compete for subsidies are determined by the trade-off between political benefits and economic costs, the latter depending on the extent of decentralization of fiscal authority. However, there has been a lack of attention to the role of labor mobility across jurisdictions, known to be particularly important when governments (center and local) cannot impose strict control on inter-regional migration. To analyze how the local governments determine their investment strategies to maximize the sum of welfare in the region in response to the possible policy regimes: fiscal centralization, complete decentralization and partial decentralization, I endogenize the relationship between the production labor inputs and public infrastructure provided by the central and local governments. I show that a simple model with labor mobility across regions suggests that complete fiscal decentralization and partial fiscal decentralization are not necessarily the best in terms of economic efficiency in the sense at least one local government or both local governments invest more in public infrastructure than under complete fiscal centralization. This implies that the central government is still needed to get involved in the entire process of decision making in public infrastructure provision.
    Download PDF (431K)
  • Yasufumi ENOMURA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_103-I_110
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to be effective tools for flood damage mitigation, flood hazard maps must be recognized and understood sufficiently by residents. In this paper, the author investigates actual efforts and issues to enhance residents' recognition and understanding of flood hazard maps. Then, as a case study, the author analyzes residents' estimation of a flood hazard map based on a questionnaire survey.
    Download PDF (419K)
  • Atsushi KOIKE, Takashi UKON
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_111-I_119
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper evaluates the economic impact of lost productivity due to limitation of electrical power supply policies in Kanto region by using the SCGE [Spatial Computable General Equilibrium] model. The purpose of this study is that how much indirect economic damage of this policy spread to Tohoku region where happened the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. In addition, we analyzed the economic benefit that caused by the restriction of electric power interchange due to the difference in frequency of 60Hz or 50Hz. Our simulation results clearly show there is a possibility that economic depression in Kanto is a adversely affect the reconstruction of Tohoku and power interchange project is effective to reduce this damages.
    Download PDF (582K)
  • Hiroto KATO, Toshihiko MIYAGI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_121-I_130
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper sheds light on the effects of cumulative fiscal policies in the past. We propose a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with time-to-build technology for public capital and non-Ricardian household to evaluate the impact of public investment as a plan to revive the economy. We estimate the structural parameters of the model by using a Bayesian approach and analyze the impulse responses to transitory shocks of public investment. In our approach, the structural parameters are treated as timevarying and structural changes of parameters are detected naturally by using particle filter.
    Download PDF (583K)
  • Noriaki MATSUSHITA, Eizo HIDESHIMA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_131-I_139
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Budget allocation for mitigation management needs to consider uncertainty and combination of multiprogram. In this research, we analyze the effectiveness of the budgeting process from this viewpoint. As a result, it is suggested that budget allocation depends on the subjectivity of the evaluators. As one method to improve this situation, we show that portfolio method can visualize the uncertainty and return, and that the method provides information for budget allocation. The information would help for deliberation among policymakers.
    Download PDF (1526K)
  • Shoshi MIZOKAMI, Hidetoshi KAWASHIMA, Hisamitsu OHMORI, Chizuru NAGATA ...
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_141-I_153
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For aging people whose physical function has declined, it is important to prepare a certain transport device compensated with the decline in moving capability in order to move and lead an independent life according to their mind. Personal Mobility (PM) like electric carts seems to be very useful as its transport device. However, it cannot be popular with open market yet, so it is necessary not only to discuss a new use for it but also to make clear its effects on the change of the Quality of Life for ageing people in advance. The difference in the Quality of Life from the viewpoint of health-welfare between before and after using PM in their daily life is inspected.
    Download PDF (2515K)
  • Tetsuya TAMAKI, Hirokazu TATANO, Eisuke IMAI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_155-I_166
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Critical infrastructure is defined as those which, if destroyed, would adversely impact on the social or economic well-being. This study focuses on a global port system, which is one of global critical infrastructure, and take up the disaster reduction investment. In the port system, if a port is destroyed and the other ports are not destroyed, some ports may be damaged indirectly. It means there is independency in this system. So, the decision making of one port depends on the decision making of the other ports. Each port minimizes its expected loss given the others strategy for mitigation investment. However, the total expected loss isn't minimized. That is, externality brought about by interdependency among the ports makes a gap between social optimum and nash equilibrium. In order to improve the problem, this paper proposes CAT-Bond. This CAT-Bond has a trigger related to the malfunction of the other port. consequently, this can reduce the gaps between social optimum and nash equilibrium.
    Download PDF (1646K)
  • Kyosuke IJICHI, Fumihiro HARA, Satoshi FUJII
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_167-I_174
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The authors' past study developed a scale measuring the spiritual vulgarity of the masses, based upon Ortega's “The Revolt of the Masses” (1930). The study indicated that the vulgarity of the masses might have a negative impact on urban landscape and consensus building around public works. In order to reduce one's vulgar disposition, we focused on “reading a good book”. And it is indicated that “reading a good book” has the potential for reducing the vulgarity.
    In this report, we aimed to explore more practical measure for reducing one's vulgar disposition. We focused on volunteer activities as prosocial behavior, and hypothesized that the experience of volunteer activities might reduce the vulgarity of the mass. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a questionnaire survey. The obtained data supported the hypothesis, however, it also indicated that the experience of volunteer activities cause undesirable effects for one's vulgar disposition in the group whose vulgar disposition is high.
    Download PDF (544K)
  • Ryuji KAKIMOTO, Yasushi ENOMURA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_175-I_183
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper aims to study an expression of flood risk information owing to prompt recognition of flood risk and preparedness for flood. First, an attitude survey of flood was done in high risk area of flood and covariance structure analysis and evaluation of flood hazard map were executed. According to the result, three kinds of flood risk information, flood hazard map, probability expression of return period, and expression of risk measure, were made and were shown to the residents. As a result, it was made clear that recognition of flood risk and preparedness for flood were promoted according to a characteristic of each expression. Furthermore, probability expression of return period or expression of risk measure was added to flood hazard map to make use of a characteristic of each expression. Consequently, understanding and reliability o f flood hazard map were improved.
    Download PDF (2847K)
  • Toshiyuki NAKAMURA, Satoshi FUJII, Tsutomu YABE, Go HAGIHARA, Kazuhiko ...
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_185-I_196
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mobility management (MM) is a transport policy based on communication with “voluntary” behavioral changes. Workplace mobility management encourages changes not only in individual behaviors, but also in corporate behaviors. It also involves high-level encouragement of behavioral changes; “MM policy conductors promote companies to promote behavioral changes.” The “government” has played a critical role in MM deployment which advanced behavioral changes in various levels. This paper clarifies the role played by the government in nationwide deployment of workplace mobility management through workplace mobility management approach by the government.
    Download PDF (617K)
  • Nobuhiko MATSUMURA, Yohei ODA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_197-I_206
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aims to identify the relationship between civil service officers' personal networks and their basic community-building abilities. A questionnaire survey was carried out targeting civil service officers of basic municipalities, and found that civil service officers' personal networks with weak intimate relations could be divided into four forms, namely, “Group with few members,” “Group with numerous networks outside the place of work,” “Group with numerous networks with civic groups and civil service officers outside their place of work,” and “Group with numerous community-based networks within their place of work.” We then analyzed the factors that comprised the civil service officers' basic community-building abilities, and found that they were largely influenced by their community-building experiences, their interest in the local community, their emotions toward the local community, and personal networks with weak intimate relations. It was therefore suggested that, to increase these individuals' basic community-building abilities, it was effective to increase networks inside their place of work, as well as networks related to building communities outside their place of work.
    Download PDF (671K)
  • Kazuya YAMASHITA, Makoto TSUKAI, Masashi KUWANO, Hiroyuki MASUDA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_207-I_221
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rural communities in the middle mountainous areas and islands or peninsula suffer from low birthrate, aging and depopulation. In order to maintain the infrastructure in these areas, the income transfer from the other region is necessary. This study analyzes the influence of combination of survey items on investments for the transportation policy in the rural area. Following two hypotheses are tested in this study are as follows: 1) understandings of the policy increase, 2) the WTP increases, when the experience and the cognition of respondents about the transportation policy in the rural area are evoked by survey items. In order to specify the survey item effect, specify the survey item effect, the propensity score is applied in the WTP model. Statistical analysis proved the above two hypotheses. We can conclude that the survey items can be utilized as a communication tool to the respondents.
    Download PDF (592K)
  • Hitoshi NISHINO, Shin-ichi HIRATA, Atsushi NAKANO, Chikako HARADA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_223-I_230
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to grasp more accurately the changes in traffic characteristics, the panel survey to conduct research at more than one for the same individual is useful. In this study, we examined the impact and continuity of the survey to target the National Person Trip Survey, if it was changed the panel survey. We were able to grasp more accurately the secular change of traffic characteristics and attitudes and customs through the use of panel data. In addition, we showed he number of survey items will not affect the recovery rate and intention to participate in the second survey and name and address information can be collected from a sample of about 90% if the intention participation has been confirmed.
    Download PDF (437K)
  • Tsuyoshi HATORI, Kazuyoshi KAJIWARA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_231-I_239
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Values which are protected against being trade-offs with other values can make an appropriate judgment regarding public works impossible. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of such protected values and explore under what kinds of decision making processes people with protected values could accept public works. For this purpose, we conducted a questionnaire survey. The results showed that protected values are associated with unconsequential deontological rules. It was also suggested that people with protected values become more likely to possess a negative attitude towards public works if these public works were accepted according to cost-benefit analysis than when they were accepted according to other methods. Finally, implications of the present results for consensus building regarding public works were discussed.
    Download PDF (383K)
  • Yasuhiro NAGATA, Toru HAGIWARA, Katsuyuki TAKITANI, Yasuhiro KANEDA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_241-I_250
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The study proposes a model that forecasts visibility in winter by using either multiple-regression analysis or the Kalman filter. We have been developing the Road Visibility Information System (RVIS), which calculates road visibility information as the weighted intensity of power spectra (WIPS) and the present-time road visibility index (RVI) from daytime road images recorded by multiple closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras along the roads. The objective of this study is to develop the visibility forecast model based on 1-km-mesh meteorological data. We used data of the WIPS values and RVI ranks recorded by the RVIS and 1-km-mesh meteorological data recorded by the Japan Weather Association during the winter of 2009-2010 at a 35-km section of National Route 40 in Hokkaido, Japan. A multiple-regression model and the Kalman filter were employed to reveal the relationship between WIPS data from road images as a dependent variable and the meteorological data as independent variables. The Kalman filter can be regarded as the preferable of the two visibility forecast models examined in the study. Also, the 1-km-mesh meteorological data of air temperature, wind speed and snowfall were determined to be informative independent variables in the forecast models.
    Download PDF (688K)
  • Toru FUTAGAMI, Tatsuro IKEDA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_251-I_257
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this research, we paid our attention to the reliability of the time of the emergency conveyance record data of Matsuyama Municipal Fire department.
    First, we verified the reliability of the time of emergency conveyance record data by comparing the time of probe data and emergency conveyance record data. The reliability of emergency conveyance record data was shown as a result of verification. In those results, it became clear using emergency conveyance record data for various analysis.
    Finally, we were able to show statistically that accident and sickness grade, consciousness disorder level, and the existence of fixed disposal had influenced at disposal time.
    Download PDF (1047K)
  • Akiyo TANAKA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_259-I_265
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This research considered the role of member of city council in participatory type city planning from the activity actual condition and the pattern of thinking of the member of city council. Many member of a city council is engaged in a local activity or civic activities. Activity fields of the member of a city council are “city planning”, “welfare and health”, “environment”, “disaster prevention and crime prevention”, etc. How to participatory type community planning of the member of city council to be concerned is a role which connects administration and a citizen. Role of the member of a city council never remains as the representative of the area. The member of a city council is supporting the citizen community planning activities which considered disclosure of administration information, and activation of civic activities.
    Download PDF (894K)
  • Taiki NISHIMURA, Yoshio KAJITANI, Hirokazu TATANO
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_267-I_276
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Natural Disasters such as a large-scale earthquake disaster can often reduce the number of tourists even in not seriously damaged places. It is said that this damage is caused by the psychological reasons such that people feel uncertainty in the information about a level of service and better refraining an amusement including traveling. However, the loss of tourists after an earthquake disaster and its characteristics are not even quantified and investigated and it is not clearly demonstrated how long the decrease continues and how many people cancel traveling in the earthquake-loss assessment field. In order to understand the damage in more correct manner, this study developed a framework by which we can estimate the periods of damage and an amount of people who call off their traveling. This is composed of the methods on time-series analysis and applied to the 5 cases of recent earthquake disasters. The results indicates the impact of the disaster exists even in an outside the damaged areas, but the number of tourists return to the original trend within at most a year at all the cases.
    Download PDF (509K)
  • Kenji OKAMURA, Seigo NASU
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_277-I_284
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we proposed an evaluation process of ITS for problem-solving, which process is developing a logic model based on civil awareness and measuring indicates on logic model. We also applied an evaluation process to a practical case.
    From the results, the connection between a problem structure and an effect structure of ITS were logically explained by a proposed process. As well, Measuring civil awareness with logic model, we suggested a possibility to judge the effectiveness of ITS. Therefore, it was possible to select outputs should take priority by quantifying a logic model.
    Download PDF (1895K)
  • Ryoko MORIMOTO, Kei ITO, Michihiro YAMAMOTO, Hirokazu KATO, Naoki SHIB ...
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_285-I_290
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is important towards low carbon society to figure out CO2 emissions from every transportation mode. This study estimates life cycle CO2 (LC-CO2) emissions from urban passenger transport modes; bicycle, light rail transit (LRT), bus rapid transit (BRT), taxi and city-center bus service. It clarifies how much introduction of alternative transport modes can reduce CO2 emissions. Evaluation includes vehicles, infrastructures of each modes and impacts on to existing transport modes. New infrastructure construction may reduce existing traffic lanes, attract congestion, and change fuel consumption. This system boundary can include such mechanism.
    As a result of this analysis, LC-CO2 per passenger km from bicycle is 80-90% lower than passenger car. Even if new cycling road or LRT rail track or BRT road is constructed on a part of existing road for passenger car, CO2 emissions are not always reduced. If passengers change transport mode from passenger car to bicycle, LRT or BRT, CO2 emissions increase by construction of new system. In order to reduce CO2 emissions, new transport mode introduced on a road which daily traffic volume is 20,000 passengers requires to achiave following condition; 1) if there are no electric cars, 23% of passenger cars change to new transport mode, 2) if electric cars become popular, 18% of passenger cars change to new transport mode.
    Download PDF (421K)
  • Shunsuke MATSUMOTO, Katsumi UESAKA, Tetsuya OWAKI, Makoto FURUKAWA, To ...
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_291-I_303
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    While traffic surveys at arterial roads around Japan are conducted by designating survey sections, methods for the designation often vary annually and depending on types of survey. This condition has been requiring substantial labor for mutual uses of survey outcomes and comparative analyses. In addition, the conventional methods were not useful for those who work on data to analyze traffic survey outcomes at a network level and efficient updating of data obtained from road sections.
    In order to eliminate these problems, this paper proposes standard reference road sections for road surveys that are compatible with the needs for traffic surveys and analyses, self-explanatory and easy to understand, and great for long-term data stability as well as standard reference intersections which can be primarily derived from the standard reference road sections. The paper then describes specific contents of these standards. In addition, this paper clarifies that efficient uses of these standards enable mutual uses of various types of traffic survey outcomes and improve the efficiency of data processing such as data sorting by intersections and network analyses.
    Download PDF (2644K)
  • JongJin YOON, Keisuke INOUE, Masahiro EMORI, Yuuki KOORI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_305-I_313
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Reallocating road space to serve all users and sustainable modes of transport such as walking, cycling and public transport away from car-oriented road planning is increasing at a rapid rate in many cities worldwide. However, to give priority to car traffic in road planning is still common in Japan.
    In this study, in order to examine the possibility of road space reallocation in Japan, we analyzed the influence of road space reallocation in favor of walking and cycling by traffic assignment. The results showed the reallocation of road space has no negative influence on the traffic flow in the study area if the TDM policy is implemented appropriately with the reallocation of road space.
    Download PDF (688K)
  • Tetsuo MORITA, Satoru IRISAWA, Ayaka NAGASHIO, Kazuhiro NOMURA, Shin- ...
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_315-I_323
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The questionary survey to citizen is carried out in Japan, The questionnaire sheet is often provided with the column of the free answer, but the data are not analyzed quantitatively enough until now. The aim of this study is to analyze free answer data quantitatively and to examine one method to clarify the image of the city, utilizing the text mining technique of the field of natural language processing. We carried out the questionary survey to residents of the left side of Tone River in Maebashi City. We analyzed relations of free answer data and the satisfaction of quality of life. And we showed one method to clarify the image of the city, by analyzing the collocation of words.
    Download PDF (1247K)
  • Takanori SAWASAKI, Satoshi FUJII, Tsuyoshi HATORI, Daiki HASEGAWA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_325-I_337
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Although many quantitative analyses by the natural science technique has been conducted as a method of acquiring useful knowledge in city planning until now, in order to understand a thought of people in connection with city planning, it becomes indispensable to use the hermeneutical methodology of interpreting a "Narrative". So, in this research, we described and interpreted the narrative of city planning as the method for the purpose of considering the agreement formation process turned to solution of a traffic problem for the "Transportation and urban planning" advanced in Kawagoe, Saitama Prefecture. In order to depict the narrative, we had some interviews with people concerned and attended some meetings and through synthesizing collected individual narration, the narrative of the whole city planning was constituted and our interpretation was performed. As a result, it was suggested that the basic agreement had been made for consideration of traffic problems, or the sharing of awareness of traffic lead from conservation of historic townscape was an important element it would make a progress in the creation of city traffic.
    Download PDF (518K)
  • Masahiro NAGAO, Takahito AONO, Takuya TOGAWA, Hirokazu KATO, Mitsuru S ...
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_339-I_348
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Compact city is a promising urban form from a sustainability viewpoint, especially in developed countries. For urban planners, however, it is difficult to determine which areas should be expected to retreat and which should be concentrated. This paper discusses the morphology of an urban area after a retreat and concentration policy is implemented. The authors design and implement a genetic algorithm to determine areas that should retreat and those where concentration should occur to secure sustainability of a real local city. Changes in various indices related with Quality Of Life (QOL) and the urban forms that emerge are discussed. To evaluate this optimization technique, we focus on reducing maintenance expenses and improving the QOL within city government budget constraints. It is found that, in least maintenance cost option, people living in old houses/buildings or low land price areas may leave those districts and re-concentrate into areas where transport is convenient such as around train stations and national routes. In QOL maximization option, people living in the suburbs where transport is relatively inconvenient may move to more accessible areas. In medium option between least maintenance cost and most QOL, suburbs where land prices are low and where houses are old are the prior areas to retreat, followed by suburbs where transport is inconvenient. It is concluded that proposed optimization method, using a genetic algorithm for the evaluation of retreat and re-concentrate policies, is efficient and reliable.
    Download PDF (1272K)
  • Atsushi KOIKE, Keisuke SATO
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_349-I_361
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Most tourist depends on the vehicle to make a tour around in local region since public transport service is not developed well in these region. In order to try to improve local tourism as one of regional economic growth policy, It is effective to improve the traffic condition from metropolitan area to local region or among regional sightseeing area by road network development. On the other hands, most tourism statistics have focused on the survey of national or prefectural trend in Japan. Although tourism industry is assumed one of major industries in most municipalities, this statistical limitation makes difficult to make a strategic plan for local tourism growth based on the quantitative analysis.
    In this paper, we estimate the value added of tourism industry on each municipalities to understand the current regional tourism condition, and apply the Spatial Computable General Equilibrium model to analyze the production change on tourism industry by road network development. And finally, we propose some effective information to make a strategic plan for local tourism growth.
    Download PDF (2239K)
  • Shoshi MIZOKAMI, Seiji TAKAMATSU, Mika YOSHIZUMI, Yuji HOSHINO
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_363-I_374
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, the decline in the center city by suburbanization of a resident and a commercial activity is pointed out in the local city. Similarly, the decline of city vitality by decrease of the amount of pedestrian traffic and undeveloped is worried about in Kumamoto city center. So improvement of the walking space to which migration of town visitor is inspired is desired. In this study, the spatial structure of street is estimated by Integration Value from Space Syntax theory, Accessibility Value from Network theory and indicator of building-use along the street. Therefore the purpose of this study is to make model which reflects relation between these indicator and the amount of the pedestrian traffic, and to obtain suggestion that the spatial structure of street where migration is inspired and plan for improvement of spatial quality.
    Download PDF (3086K)
  • Mikiharu ARIMURA, Ryouhei INOMATA, Tohru TAMURA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_375-I_382
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to estimate the future spatial distribution of the population and the number of people in house from 2010 to 2030 for Obihiro urban area that is a local city of Hokkaido by the generation constitution of the residents in each the zone and the distribution of building age. In this study, therefore, the population data which is published by Obihiro city government and the statistic data from the basic survey of urban planning were integrated. And the distribution of future population was estimated by the cohort analysis. In addition, the relations of spatial distribution of population and the building age in the future was analyzed. Finally, by the result of the extracted districts from the future population decline and aging buildings distribution, the direction of the renovation of Obihiro urban area was considered.
    Download PDF (2619K)
  • Takuya TOGAWA, Hirokazu KATO, Yoshitsugu HAYASHI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_383-I_396
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study is to establish an urban sustainability evaluation system by the elementary school district from the viewpoint of Triple-Bottom-Line (TBL: Environment, Economic and Social). With applying it to the Nagoya metropolitan area, following results are obtained. Firstly, it was shown that the average levels of all TBL indicators would deteriorate in the next 40 years. Secondly, risk factor which spoil urban and regional sustainability was analyzed with revealing the spatial distribution of TBL quantitatively at the year of 2005 and 2050. And, the results showed that the economic and environmental indicators would decay mainly in the agricultural, forestal and some part of the suburban area where baby boomers acquired houses. In addition, disparities of the economic and environmental indicators among all districts were expected to widen. Finally, future urban restructuring scenarios, in which above results are considered, were evaluated based on the TBL perspective.
    Download PDF (2686K)
  • Machiko KINASHI, Toshiaki KIN
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_397-I_406
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper studies a preference and latent demand for a final residence taking into consideration the necessity of nursing-care. Our data are based on questionnaire survey conducted among inhabitants in detached house. The result of analysis from a case study of Hitachi city in Ibaraki prefecture revealed that most of the inhabitants preferred staying in their current house despite fact that the convenience of life in Hitachi city was lower than the neighboring municipalities. However, they had a few opportunities to consider changing their place of residence, and only less than 24.9% of inhabitants were almost certain to continue living in their current house when they considered the concrete circumstances that they need to receive a nursing-care in the future. Many of them are likely to change their residence on the ground of anxieties about continuance residency, a difficulty in raising money, and a consideration for their son/daughter whether they want to do or not.
    Download PDF (979K)
  • Takuya NISHIMURA, Seiji TAKAMATSU, Takashi OGUCHI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_407-I_416
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Street pattern in Tokyo has been transformed along with being affected by some important historical events. In this study, we take four events as important turning points, which are the Meiji Restoration, the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, World War II, and rapid economic growth. As a methodology, we use Axial Analysis of Space Syntax theory. Axial Analysis enables to evaluate street patterns quantitatively from topological point of view. However, since Axial Analysis is street-based methodology, it is not suitable for fixed-point comparison where some streets are completely changed. In this research we introduce a method which enables fixed-point comparison. That is to use mesh system as an aggregating unit of the result of Axial Analysis. By utilizing this methodology, we try to demonstrate evolutional process of street pattern in Tokyo, and the contextual meaning of the historical events.
    Download PDF (2881K)
  • Yuu SUZUKI, Kazuhiro KIMURA, Satoru HINO, Takuya MINAMIDE
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_417-I_426
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, central area's decline in local city are in question. For activation of those area, improvement of its attractiveness is needed. Also providing comfortable resting space for visitor is important so that they could rest, refresh and stroll through there again. The purpose of the present paper is to make clear the behavior of down town visitors, such as resting, having some food or drink, aim of visiting down town, and the relationship between those behavior and the cognition of many types of resting space, such as preference, feeling of freedom and potential of communicating others.
    Download PDF (607K)
  • Junya FUKUMOTO, Yoshihiro OKAMOTO
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_427-I_436
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A functional region is a territorial unit that is composed of multiple subunits interacting each other socially or economically. In this study, we propose a new method of delineating functional regions that is based on the community finding method known as the modularity maximization approach. By formulating the null network of modularity based on an entropy model, we make it possible to apply modularity maximization approach to the functional region delineation problem. Through the case study using Japanese intermunicipal commuting flow data, we show that the proposed method is robust to the expansion of applied area size.
    Download PDF (2244K)
  • Junichi MOTOHASHI, Mio SUZUKI, Tetsuo YAI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_437-I_444
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, two elements of citizens' perception – long-term view and altruistic – are considered to sustain the local public transport systems, and are formulated by using non-cooperative game theory. As a result, we show that citizens can choice public transport due to the effect of long-term view and altruistic theoretically even if the choice of car is preferable for them in terms of short-term and egoistic benefit. Furthermore, we introduce two policies and evaluate the effect, and show that these policies can enhance the possibility to choice public transport and improve the sustainability of public transport.
    Download PDF (1187K)
  • Nobuhiko MATSUMURA, Nao MIYAKE
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_445-I_452
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As a thing contributing to present conditions analysis for the activation of the shopping district, the purpose of the Study is to analyze attributes and relations between stores to promote movement between stores, as a viewpoint by the visitor's action. And for grasping movement between stores of the whole shopping district quantitatively, the Study applies the Social Network Analysis. For the purpose of Study, I choose the shopping district which stand on Hankyu Ibaraki-shi Station west areas a case study area and carried out the survey following up the visitors.
    Download PDF (1839K)
  • Eiji FURUICHI, Motohiro FUJITA, Fumitaka NAGATA, Jun MITAMURA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_453-I_465
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We studied effectiveness of tourism promotion programs by assessing excursion characteristics, traffic jam and mobility measures as a study area for Nara-koen park. First, by compiling survey results conducted on tourists visiting Nara-koen park, we constructed a mode choice model to analyze tourist's mode choosing properties. Then we classified frequently visited touring facilities in the district to verify excursion characteristics for each transportation mode that they've chosen. Furthermore, by modeling consciousness for touring frequency growth, we examined the importance of mobility countermeasure as one method for tourism promotion and considered new tourism promotion method from the mobility point of view as concerning excursion characteristics unique to Nara-koen park visitors.
    Download PDF (895K)
  • Shotaro ABE, Dai NAKAGAWA, Ryoji MATSUNAKA, Tetsuharu OBA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_467-I_477
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively clarify the factors that have transformed underused land in a number of cities. Therefore, we constructed a database of underused land by using housing maps in GIS and analyzed the factors causing the change between 1995 and 2005 for underused areas. We focused on conditions of public transportation and designation of land use districts in central areas of 37 core cities in October, 2005. Furthermore, we also analyzed factors of transformation from underused land to residential land in each lot.
    Results show that underused land area has decreased in cities where railway stations have been maintained and underused lands were distributed in close proximity to each other in 1995. Moreover, from an analysis of factors for transformation to residential land, outdoor parking lots have a negative effect on transformation from underused land to residential land.
    Download PDF (1777K)
  • Kaichi ICHIKAWA, Hisashi KUBOTA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_479-I_490
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Europe, some successful practical evaluation indicators of urban sustainability have been introduced. This study aims to clarify results of European experience about urban sustainability evaluation indicators focusing on mainly their influences on policy-making and behavior of local governments through the literature survey about representative indicators and interviews with some key persons in Europe. As a result, we found out that most of their indicators attach importance to transportation and some local governments in Europe have been influenced to implement policy-making and act as sustainable cities by application of urban sustainability evaluation indicators.
    Download PDF (931K)
  • Toshimitsu MASHIMA, Mitsuhiko KAWAKAMI, Masahiro RACHI, Masahiro KATAG ...
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_491-I_498
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper studies the specified conditions and regulations of ordinances by Article 34-12 based on the questionaire survey for prefectures and designated cities. As a result of the study, it is clarified that some municipalities set down “Special Area Type” which could reflect local characteristics although most municipalities set down “Fixed Development Type” in order to simplify and accelerate the procedure.
    “Special Area Type” is applied to vitalize the existing villages and local industries. Its area designation is done by quantitative standards and the admitted use of building is prescribed according to the local area characteristics. It could be an effective planning system for regulating land use activities in urbanization control area.
    On the other hand, there would be possibilities of excessive development and the gap of the land use control level between adjacent municipalities. It is necessary to make a land use plan for the wider area and to apply ordinances appropriately.
    Download PDF (483K)
  • Hayeong JEONG, Kakuya MATSUSHIMA, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_499-I_511
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Identity plays an important role in place-making. It empowers community movements to build up a common space worthwhile to live in with pride as well as attachment to their place. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between identity and neighborhood (or community) based activism by a covariance structure analysis. The analysis is based on a survey of community activities in Nichinan town which is a typical depopulated rural area in Japan. In order to find the answer to the question, how and why identity motivates community activism, some literature reviews on identity for collective action are presented in section 2. The results of basic analysis on the community activities in Nichinan town are shown in section 3. The validity of the covariance structure analysis on identity and community activities in this study is discussed in section 4. Finally, a policy to motivate identities which could foster marginal area development is proposed.
    Download PDF (771K)
  • Dongwook PARK, Dai NAKAGAWA, Ryoji MATSUNAKA, Tetsuharu OBA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_513-I_521
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently, there has been some tendency to restrain the flow of automobiles and to promote pedestrian zones to encourage vibrancy at the central areas in several cities of the world. However, it is not clear which factors make vibrancy high on the street and how they are related. Therefore, we performed a field survey and gathered data about the number of pedestrians and various environmental factors in the central areas of Kyoto, Seoul and Florence and devised a Structural Equation Model for each.
    As a result, pedestrian vibrancy rate is positively related to environmental factors on streets which make them feel safe and comfortable; pedestrian zone, arcade and commodity store. However, it is negatively related to parking lots and parked vehicles. In the Structural Equation Model, the condition of walking space as a latent variable has a direct positive effect on vibrancy rate, common to both cities. Moreover, it has an indirect influence on the existence of parking in Kyoto. Results showed that facilities for pedestrians are essential to make a central area vibrant with people.
    Download PDF (2420K)
  • Sho-ichiro NAKAYAMA
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_523-I_539
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objectives of infrastructure planning are usually the systems that include human activities. It is crucially important to consider how to deal with human behavior and/or what is the presupposition for human behavior. The concept of Simon's bounded rationality has influenced modeling of human behavior. In this paper, the modeling framework for the system that consists of human behaviors is examined based on Simon's bounded rationality. While the assumption of perfect rationality results in “state description,” “process description” is derived from the assumption of bounded rationality. Also, planning or its properties are investigated from the Simon's studies on organization phenomena. Based on those Simon's studies and thoughts, process description as an implication to infrastructure planning is examined.
    Download PDF (500K)
  • Takuma UEDA, Hiroaki YAMAMURO, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2012 Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages I_541-I_550
    Published: 2012
    Released: December 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The e-commerce (EC) market is expanding steadily: shopping behavior in real space is shifting to online shopping. That change is regarded as a problem because it reduces the number of visitors who come to cities and towns for shopping. Consequently, the prosperity of such areas diminishes. That trend is expected to influence real space strongly, but the actual conditions and results have not been fully clarified. From the perspective of urban revitalization, it is of great importance to grasp the shift in shopping behavior toward online shopping quickly. This study first clarifies (1) what kind of people are shifting their shopping behavior to cyberspace through online shopping. Furthermore, by particularly addressing the actually shifted shopping behavior, results will reveal (2) factors causing the shift according to product characteristics, as well as clarify (3) the actual conditions of shopping behavior shifted to cyberspace and (4) the possibility of progress.
    Download PDF (589K)
feedback
Top