In recent years, many kinds of geographic information in socio-demographic attributes such as land use or population is available for fine aggregation unit. In this research, we pointed out the similarity between factor analysis and topic model, and applied both models to geographical information with multiple sociodemographic attributes in fine unit, in order to clarify the advantages of the latter. The 12 attributes of sociodemographic data was collected at the tertiary mesh level from the five capital cities of the prefectures in Chugoku area. In order to process the raw data into the input for topic model, the dataset with 12 attributes were discretized into totally 96 class attribute by natural class classification. As a result, eight geographical topics were obtained from the topic model, but only three factors were obtained from the factor analysis. The spatial distribution of dominant geographical topic which is only available from the topic model can appropriately capture the land-use characteristics of the actual cities.
The disaggregative estimation method of Markov transition probabilities has been proposed by the development of the Markov deterioration hazard model in 2005. This makes improvement of accuracy of deterioration forecasting in infrastructure asset management and the number of applications of statistical deterioration forecasting models in practice is increasing. In the Markov deterioration hazard model, it is assumed that transition of condition states occurs between only adjacent condition states. This assumption, however, may cause a problem that the Markov deterioration hazard model cannot estimate deterioration processes which includes transition of condition states between not adjacent condition states. In this study, to overcome this problem, the multi-destination Markov deterioration hazard model is proposed with use of multi-destination hazard models. The proposed methodology is demonstrated in a numerical example and empirical study using inspection data of existing bridges, and its effectiveness is discussed.
This study examines the effects of staggered work hours (SWH) on spatial and temporal distribution of economic activities. To this end, we incorporate a model of work start time choice developed by Takayama1) into the traditional residential location model. By utilizing the properties of a potential game, we characterize its equilibrium and clarify that SWH alleviates peak-period congestion, but causes suburbanization. We further show that SWH does not necessarily improve efficiency.
Landscape formation plans have been a common government-led practice in various municipalities that apply theories of urban planning and design to the regulations and recommendations of the physical environment. On top of that a mindset and proactive engagement is required of the landscape-related actors towards an urbanism or machizukuri that sustains the landscape. As such, it is imperative to have a deeper understanding of the urban experiences as well as the self-conscious and personal meanings attached to the landscape, and incorporate the understanding a difference and a common perception and finding the point of contact that they can share each other. Walking around and workshops were conducted with participants of different sociodemographic characteristics in the study in the Shimokitazawa district, and the focus was on the meanings and thoughts of urban experiences of townscape. Further discussions and analyses led to the identification of a typology of 17 kinds of meanings, which fall under 2 categories: i) meanings whose presence depends on the manner of spatial interaction, ii) any actor have the viewpoints to seek a sense of freedom and membership in common in participating in the society.