In Japan, the disclosure of in-depth land price data is increasingly considered to be critical to establishing transparent and fair land markets. The land market value publication by the Land Appraisal Committee, under the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, and prefectural governments (chika-koji and chika-chosa in Japanese) have played a major role in land pricing, and since 2005, publicly accessible real estate transaction prices have also been integral components of land pricing. However, these datasets alone do not provide adequate information to all market participants. The appraised prices often differ from actual transaction prices, and important transactional information such as the precise location, time, and attributes of properties are restricted due to privacy constraints. Further, appraised prices are not easily comparable with actual transaction prices due to dissimilar distribution points. In this paper, we propose the publication of land price information by interpolating appraised prices for every transaction location using kriging, and comparing them to actual transaction prices; subsequently, we draw a map that allows us to easily understand trends in land prices. In addition, we develop an experimental online database that allows for easily searchable interpolated appraised land prices, accompanied by land price history and local market conditions.
This paper aims to structure activities of self-support disaster reduction associations by conducting logistic regression analysis and covariance structure analysis on the basis of a questionnaire survey to the representatives in Kumamoto Prefecture, and obtain policy implications about proper governance of the associations to promote their activities. The survey clears the number of residents positively contribute to the association, implementation of community activities for disaster reduction, preparation of activity-manuals in emergencies and selection of persons responsible for the activities. Consequently, it is shown that the associations with the larger number of the contributors are likely to select persons responsible for the activities. Moreover, it is shown that the selection of responsible persons promotes implementation of community activities for disaster reduction and preparation of activity-manuals in emergencies.
Urban expansion is considered to bring a substantial impact on the environment including biodiversity and climate change. In this study, we develop an urban spatial model incorporating the housing sector, and apply it to about 3,600 cities all over the world. This model is based on the monocentric-city model by Alonso, but it separates the land market and the floor market. Using the global data of urbanized area, we start with inversely estimating transportation costs for each city. Then, setting a socio-economic scenario over a long-term period, we forecast urban expansion in conjunction with utility of local residents by 2050. We particularly examine the sensitivity of urban expansion to housing productivity improvement and transportation cost reduction. As a result, we found that population growth has a substantial impact on urban expansion, in which, while housing productivity improvement would restrain urban expansion, transportation cost reduction would overwhelmingly accelerate the expansion.
The deterioration state of each civil infrastructure is evaluated from various aspects, while focusing on several deterioration phenomena. In addition, there is a possibility that several deterioration events interact with one another. In this study, the authors propose a multidimensional deterioration process model for civil infrastructures considering the interaction among several deterioration events. In detail, the progression of each deterioration event is expressed by a mixed Markov deterioration hazard model including heterogeneity parameters. Furthermore, the authors propose a multidimensional deterioration process model expressing the heterogeneity of deterioration rate in each deterioration event with a gamma distribution, and the heterogeneity correlation structure among deterioration events with the Archimedean copula, and a methodology of Bayesian estimation. Lastly, the effectiveness of the proposed method is discussed by using the actual inspection data of expressway expansion joints.
Bus trigger system seems to be one of effective measures to activate the local public transport systems. According to a trigger contract concluded between Kanazawa University and Hokuriku Rail Road Co., Ltd, Kanazawa bus trigger service has been offered and become successful. It is possible to regard this contract as a long-range game whether the both players decide to continue or cancel. The aim of this research is to examine the differences between their optimal and actual strategies for the Kanazawa bus trigger contract using a kind of simulation technique in accordance with the repeated game process, and to propose the appropriate fare level and target balance between income and expenditure in order to maintain the bus trigger system.
This study clarified actual conditions of “Spongy urban area” in local city. In this study, “Spongy urban area” is defined as many vacant lots and houses are caused sponge-like state in urban area. Main results are as follows. 1) The suburbanization of urban area is progressing, while declining population. 2) The city center and outer of suburbs in local city tend to became spongy urban area. 3) It is highly possible that sprawl areas become spongy urban area with leaving many vacant houses. The number of households in sprawl areas are relatively declining. 4) The lands in land readjustment project areas are repeatedly used for newly housing development.
This paper builds a spatial computable general equilibrium model featuring international transport gateway region. The model explicitly handles export industry and import industry as the required transport service industries for international trade. Domestic interregional transport system is also explicitly modeled by introducing iceberg transport cost concept. Furthermore we illustrate the methodology for converting from standard Input-Output table to benchmark data for our model and apply the methodology to Tokyo Metropolitan Input-Output Table.
The opportunity of daily life activities such as shopping and going hospital is getting restricted in many areas due to the reduction of the public transportation service and/or the closure of the commercial facilities. It is required for the local government to take actions to maintain the opportunity especially for the basic daily life activities. In doing so, it is useful for selecting or prioritizing the alternative action if the opportunity can be measured. This paper develops the accessibility measure for evaluating the opportunity for daily life activities in terms of freedom of choice. Also we demonstrate its usefulness using numerical case studies.
This paper constructs a new economic geography (NEG) model incorporating a natural disaster risk and examines the interrelationship between industrial agglomeration and vulnerability of a spatial economy. We shows that the location pattern emerging as the market equilibrium is characterized by over-agglomeration and is more vulnerable than that of social optimum. By analyzing the regional spillover effects of disaster mitigation investment for inter-regional and intra-regional transportation, this paper declares that disaster mitigation investment improves the utilitarian social welfare, but it does not always increase the survival rate of firms at the time of disaster.