Cultured lichen tissues (composed of a mycobiont and a phycobiont) were obtained from fresh thalli of Cladonia vulcani Savicz (collected from Ebino, Kyushu) by means of the method described by Yamamoto and Yamada. Trebouxia excentrica Archibald was isolated from the cultured tissues. The following different pH media were prepared by adding sulphuric acid or caustic soda to modify the malt-yeast extract culture media : 2 , 4 , 5.5 , 7 and 9. About 5mg cultured tissue and algal colonies were established on the defferent pH media. Each cultured tissue colony was weighed and transplanted every 4 weeks ; each algal colony was similarly treated. Growth curves cultured tissue in different pH media are presented, as are groth curves of symbiotic algal colony in different pHs. Growth ratios (fresh weight after 12 weeks culture / initial weight) of cultured lichen tissues and symbiotic algal colonies in different pH media are determined : cultured lichen tissues of Cladonia vulcani grow best in pH 4 media, while symbiotic algae (Trebouxia excentrica) grow well in media between pH 4 and pH 9. The soil of natural habitats of C. vulcani shows pH 5.5,which is the same growth ratio of mycobionts and phycobionts; this may suggest that the formation of lichen thalli needs just same growth ratio of both mycobionts and phycobionts and it may be controlled by the habitat pH. This is the first record of Trebouxia excentrica Archibald from Japan as well as outside of Europe and North America.
This paper describes in detail the thalli with cephallae, pseudocyphellae, and other allied structures in Lobariaceae (=Stioctaceae), which are now used as the generic character in this family. Since electron beams reflected from the surface of object produce images with a remarkable three-dimentional quality because of the great depth of focus, the scanning electroscope (SEM) is used in order to observe the fine structure of the objects. The following materials are used for examining the SEM structure : for cyphellae, Sticta gracilis (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr., S. damaecornis Ach., S. weigelii (Isert. ex Ach.) Vain., and S. duplolimbata (Hue) Vain.; for psedocyphellae, Pseudocyphellaria crocate (L.) Vain. And P. argyracea (Del.) Vain.; for denuded areas of the thallus, Lobaria spathulata (Inum.) Yoshim. And L. scrobiculata (Scop.) DC. Cyphellae can be delimited as an opening on the lobe surface, of which the bottom is wholly corticated, and the margin (the rim) is of a similar nature to the other surface tissue, which is composed of well-developed hyphal tissue (mostly scleroplectencyma). However, it can be distinguished from the other thallus surface by its lack of tomenta. The cortex of the opening bottom is composed of round, semiglobose, hyphal chains, which are arranged vertically to its cortex surface. The degree of conglutination of the hyphae of the cortex varies according to the species. In the case of pseudocyphellae, the surface of the opening is not corticated, and long hyphae in the hole are vertically arranged to the surface; they are not conglutinated with each other. The pseudocyphella does not have a consicuous rim like a cyphella. The denuded areas of Lobaria spathulata looks like cyphellae; however, they lack a conspicuous rim, and are smoothly corticated throught, although the thickness of the cortical portion is slightly thinner than the remaining portion with tomenta. The cortical hyphae in denuded areas of the thallus are arranged parallel to the surface of the thallus and formed as prosoplectenchyma. The denuded areas of L. scrobiculata are similar to those of L. spathulata; however, hyphae of the denuded areae of L. scrobiculata are more separated and polysaccharides among the hyphae are less common than those of L. spathulata.
Examination of the localization and distribution of HBs-Ag in diseased liver tissue is necessary to determine the presence/absence and extent of HBV infection. Liver biopsy specimens were examined by orcein staining and by the antibody enzyme method of immunohistochemistry. Two patterns of positive cells were observed by the orcein staining : diffusestained cytoplasm of liver cells was found in one pattern, while lager inclusion body-like granules were shown in cytoplasm in the other. Many more numbers of positive cells were observed by the immunohistochemistry. These cells, however, were negative by the orcein staining, and the surface membrane of the liver cells were positive by immunohistochemistry. Therefore, it was concluded that the antibody enzyme method of immunohistochemistry is better than the orcein staining in specificity and sensitivity and more useful for analizing HBV infection and its proliferation in liver tissue.
Der Schlussel, die Hegelsche Philosophie zu verstehen, liegt im Begriff der Reflexion. Ohne den Begriff genau zu fassen. Konnen wir die Dialektik nicht verstehen. Aber die Lehre von Wesen, wo diese Kategorie entfaltet ist, ist bekanntlich die schwerste in seiner "Wissenscaft der Logik". Die Schwierigkeit dieses Kapitels liegt naturlich in seinem Gedanken selbst, aber sie besteht auch in seiner Terminologie. Dann untersuchen wir hier die Reflexionstheorie, indem wir Ausdrucke Hegels erortern. Die Reflexion bedeutet in seiner Logik nicht die sogenannte subjektive Reflexion, soudern "reflexio", d.i.reflektieren (zuruckbiegen). Dann ist sie die Bewegung zwischen zwei Polen, d.i.Wesen und Schein (Sein). Nach Hegel liegt der Anfang der Bewegung weder im Wesen noch im Sein. Sie sind relatif. Und die Relativitat der Bewegung hei βt Reflexion.