This study examined the developmental changes of young children's understanding of adversary's malice in a situation where they were provocated. 88 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were asked to select a strategy from 6 strategies which they would behave and estimate the degree of the adversary's malice. The following significant results were obtained. Whether the adversary 's intention was malicious or not, 6-year-old girls would assert their opinions positively. On the other hand, 6-year-old boys would avoid interpersonal troubles. In addition, when adversary's intention was not malicious, 6-year-old children estimated adversary's malice lower than 4- and 5-year-old children. These results suggest that 6-year-old children can understand the degree of adversary's malice exactly, but they cannot select different strategies according to his/her intention.
The present paper aimed at investigating the process of the introduction of Sargent jump in Japan. The follwing results were obtained. 1) In Meiji era, Tousuke Akiho and Michiakira Nagai introduced D.A.Sargent as a scholar who devised Imitative Gymnastics.On the paper of physical education magazine published in Taisho and early Showa era, we found the theory of the measurement of physical strength and the method to measure a vertial jump investigated by D.A.Sargent. 2 ) After World War II , the system of the school physical education in Japan was established under the influence of U.S.A..In that system, the measurement of student's physical strength and motor fitness was important.A lot of Japanese scholars studied Sargent's theory and Sargent jump. 3 ) Sargent jump became popular through the books and magazines, and now, is used as an easy method to measure the capacity of a vertical jump.
This is a basic study to unravel the influence of Dio Lewis' gymnastics on the formation of modern Japanese physical education and aims to examine "The New Gymnastics for Men, Women and children" (Dio Lewis, 1876) and "New Selected Gymnastics" (Institute of Gymnastics, 1882) The followings became clear. 1) Some exercises like Mutual-Help Exercises a Pin Running of "The New Gymnastics for Men, Women and children" were not included in "New Selected Gymnastics" . 2) But main exercises like Free Gymnastics, Heavy Gymnastics (Dumb-Bells, The Rings, The Wand, The Indian Club, Bean-Bags) of the former were similar to those of the latter. 3) However, the degree varies; Free Gymnastics, Ring Gymnastics and Bean-Bag Gymnastics have a lot of similarity, Dumb-Bell Gymnastics have comparatively small, and as for Indian Club Gymnastics there's little similarity between the two books.
This is an essay about teaching English at Kochi Gakuen College and the students' general trend toward English, past and present (in their junior high & senior high school days and at present) . First, I prepared a questionnaire about English and asked the students to fill out the ten questions on it. Then I compared the results with those of a national survey on 4-year college students which was carried out under somewhat similar questions. It helped me recognize, to some degree, both the differences and the similarities between them. Secondly, I asked the students to hand in a report on their own experience and history of English learning, say, 'how they met with English and how they've been getting along with English'. They gave me a lot of practical and useful suggestions on how to improve teaching English from the standpoint of teachers as well as students. Thirdly, some information about my "English Seminar". To tell the truth, it's been in the stage of 'trial and error', so the explanation didn't go far, just an introduction to tell you the titles the students have covered in their studies over the past two or three years.
Kant sagt : Der Mensch kenne nur Mensch werden durch die Erziehung. Er sei nichts, als was die Erziehung aus ihm mache. Hier wird der Mensch zweimal geredet. Und wenn man die Erziehung spricht, wird der Mensch immer doppelt. Einerseits ist der Mensch als Materie, andererseits ist er als Zweck. Die Erziehung ist ein Versuch, den Menschen als Materie zu dem idealen Menschen zu machen. Daher liegt das erste Problem der Erzihung im Erziehungszweck. Was ist der Zweck? Wie erzieht der Mensch den Menschen? Hier wird behandelt der Erziehungszweck, von der Seite der Verhaltnis von dem Individuum zur Gesellschaft.
Food intake condition of 1 1 8 new students of Food and Nutrition Course, Kochi Gakuen College were surveyed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The results indicated that both their average of body height and weight were consistent with eighteen-year-old women's estimated standard height and weight corresponding to the recommended dietary allowances for the Japanese. The obesity index by BMI indicated that 25% of the students showed tendency of under-weight and lO% were over-weight. In the nutrient intakes, energy, calcium and iron were deficient and their sufficient ratio was 84%, 73% and 67% respectively. The ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrate to intake energy was 14 : 31 : 55. At an individual level, each nutrient intake was distributed widely.
Preliminary accounts on the pathology of Schistosoma nasale infections in cattle were described by Datta^<1)>, and a detailed description of the pathological features in infected animals was given by De Bont et al^<2)> . In the present paper, pathological features caused by S. nasale collected at an abattoir in Colombo, Sri Lanka were described. The pathological lesions obtained here were categorized according to the typing by De Bont et al^<2)> . Tissue A was control (uninfected). Tissue B showed general inflammation, granuloma formation and small ulcers with severe bleeding, corresponding with type III in the descriptions by De Bont et al^<2)>. Tissue C showed numerous nodular areas and strong general inflammation, suggesting type IV , and tissue D showed cauliflower like growths, numerous, and confluent nodular areas, ulcers, strong inflammation, and extensive loss of mucosal epithelium, indicating type V . Although descriptions of pathological features in this study were all derived from naturally infected animals, time of infection and of oviposition can be inferred due to differences in tissue features and due to kinds of infiltrated cells surrounding lesions.