The number of Japanese workers in foreign countries including senior overseas volunteers (SV) and the number of the countries where they stay have been increasing every year. However, there are few reports on the diet of the workers in foreign countries, and thus their food intake conditions remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to survey the food intake conditions of SV in the developing countries before their dispatch and during their stay. As a result, every nutrient intake during their stay was less than that before the dispatch. In particular the adequacy of minerals and vitamins were very low : the sufficiency rate for Fe, Ca, vitamin E, vitamin B_1, vitaminB_6, vitamin C were 60%, 71%, 79%, 68%, 73%, 86%, respectively. Also, in the food group-classified survey the intake of 37 food groups, which account for 74% in the 50 food groups, decreased during the stay. The intake of seafoods, and the intake of green stuffs were 58% less and 34% less, respectively. It is important that before the dispatch the workers should have a chance to learn the nutritions and foods in a foreign country, including the way of cooking.
The amount of wasabi under commercial cultivation in Kochi prefecture has been declining since its peak in 1976. The main reasons for this have been linked to lower wholesale prices, advanced age of farmers and a decreasing population of wasabi farmers in the area. Currently, the majority of wasabi become non-commercially. As a result, the field has been dilapidated. We are now investigating the pungency levels of non wasabi-cultivated in dilapidate fields every month in order to better understand the effects of weather and temperature (air and water) on its fluctuations. Our study suggests there is a strong connection between water temperature and pungency levels, in previous research, data have been collected regarding the pungency levels within the leaf, stalk and rhizome of the wasabi plants ; However, our data also include information based on the bud and seeds of the wasabi plants. Furthermore, our research detect a possible connection between the bud seeds and origin rhizome to the pungency levels found in the other areas of the wasabi plants.
The Sophy β-glucan was orally administered to every mice two weeks before infection with Toxocara canis, and a patho-histological examination was performed on infected mice 4 days, 7 days, 10 days, 15 days post-infection to research an immunological effect of the Sophy β-glucan on toxiocaniasis in mice model. Mainly we examined histology of inflammation and repair of lungs in infected mice. The hemorrhages were recognized in the alveolus largely. Injured tissues are immediately followed by a acute local reaction characterized by vascular changes, including the outpouring of plasma fluids and proteins, and soon thereafter by massing of leukocytes (mainly neutrophils and eosinophils). However, a little of plasma fluids and proteins were observed, and the effusion of the leukocytes was induced more rapidly in the Sophy (β-glucan group, than in control. These were inflammatory responses and the process of repair to injury with infection of Toxocara canis. Many alveolar macrophages were activated, and phagocyted the erythrocytes. After phagocytosis, the hemogiderin were stocked in the cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Macrophages were more strongly and rapidly activated in the Sophy β-glucan group than in the control group, resulting in the appearance of multinucleated giant cells and remarkably active phagocytosis of erythrocytes. In the Sophy β-glucan treated mice, more lymphocytes were also observed, and immuno-histochemical study revealed that T lymphocytes were dominated in the C57 BL/6 mice, and B lymphocyte and plasma cell, in the BALB/c mice. In the Sophy β-glucan treated mice, the natural immunity response was more rapidly generated in comparison with the non-treated mice, and afterwards acquired immunity reaction was responsible for the elimination of Toxocara canis and repair of tissue damage. In the Sophy β-glucan treated mice, there were no individuals which fell into the serious pulmonary edema. It was confirmed that the Sophy β-glucan revealed immunological effects on toxocaniasis in a mouse model.
The purpose of this squib is to show that a certain instance of the morphological restriction between the honorific passive morpheme -rare and the potential morpheme -rare can be derived from the phonological principle, which is found in various languages. In recent years, it has been shown in the literature that some combinations, of syntactic constituents and morphemes are constrained by the phonological principle, often called as Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP). In this paper, I examine two forms of subject honorifics in Japanese : the subject honorific (SH) form o-V-ni naru, such as o-nomi-ni naru, and the honorific passive (HP) form, such as nom-are-ru, and demonstrate that the morphological restriction cannot be attributed to syntactic or semantic violations. Finally, I briefly observe the cooccurrence restriction between HP and the passive morpheme -rare. I show that the same morphological restriction can be seen, and thus the restriction can be captured by the phonological principle.
This study examines relations between children's exclusive behaviors and understanding of other's mind in early childhood. Participants were 55 4- or 5-year-old kindergarteners. Other's mind was constructed by false belief, belief, desire, and intention. The research was conducted by interview method. The following results were obtained : When children's interpersonal behaviors were exclusive, the boys attributed other's intention as more malicious than the girls. When they were not exclusive, on the other hand, the boys and the girls did not feel malicious. We conclude that exclusive behaviors had a great influence on children's understanding of other's mind in early childhood.