In this article we first make a scale analysis of the four kinds of disturbances, i. e., the long waves, the north-south elongated long waves, the ultra-long waves, and the east-west elongated long waves, and then present the first approximation equations of motion for the respective disturbances. Based upon the approximation equations, we find for the north-south elongated long waves that the two energy interaction terms (the conversion of the eddy available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy, and the transfer of available potential energy from zonal mean to eddy) are two orders of magnitude larger than the other two interaction terms (the transfer of kinetic energy from eddy to zonal mean motion, and the interaction between the zonal mean kinetic energy and zonal mean available potential energy). For the ultra-long waves, however, the interaction between the zonal mean and eddy available potential energy is two orders of magnitude larger than the other three interaction terms.
The schemes of numerical a n alysis of the budget of momentum as well as of kinetic energy and thermal energy are formulated. In the establishment of the schemes, consistency among them is taken into consideration. The evaluation of the effects of eddy motions such as eddy stress, eddy dissipation of kinetic energy and eddy transfer of sensible heat is discussed in Section 5. In connection with the evaluation of these quantities, the problem of time intervals at which the raw data should be arranged is considered.
Momentum, sensible heat, a n d vapor fluxes are measured by using the observed wind as well as the geostrophic wind. There is a somewhat systematic difference between the two methods. Sensible heat flux measured geostrophically attains its maximum at the ground surface, whereas that obtained by the observed wind is largest at 850 mb level. The geostrophically measured momentum flux is larger than the actual momentum flux measured by the observed wind at almost all latitudes and heights, the largest difference being encountered at 300 mb,50°N. As for the north-south net vapor flux, a large fraction of it is accomplished by the mean meridional current and only a small fraction of it, by the disturbances. Such a situation makes it very difficult to evaluate the net vapor flux by geostrophic approximation.
Some local characteristics of the refractive index which are needed for the research of microwave propagation are described in a general way. The refractive indices on the surface and at 900 mb level are calculated with the use of the aerological sounding data. The vertical gradient of the refractive index is obtained by the use of these values. The local values of the refractive index decrease towards north. The maximum values are located on about 30 degree zone of north latitude. On the open sea and at the end of the peninsulas, the vertical gradients of the refractive index have comparatively large values. In the cold season, the gradient values on inland is larger than ones of the coastal stations, and in the warm season, the abovementioned situation is the opposite. With the exception of Is. Hokkaido, the values of effective earth which is used in the theory of radio wave propagation are larger than the value got by the assumption of the standard atmosphere.
In the present paper various conditions for modeling which have not been sufficiently discussed in the previous paper (Part I) are examined, and the relative position of the condition for similarity, U-M/U-N=(Lm/LN)1/3, proposed in the previous paper, is described. Moreover, some obscure points in the previous paper are made clear.
Surface water temperatures in the Pacific Ocean near Japan are treated of. Mean monthly values of temperature are prepared, and the characteristics of annual variations are discussed. Eulerian correlations of water temperature, cross correlations between sea surface and air temperature, and correlations between the sea temperature and the location of Kuroshio axis are also discussed.