Analysing the swarm ascents during the passage of the Typhoon KITTY, it is clearly shown that in a typhoon circulation of mature stage of development, there exist the downward displacements and warm air in the field of tropopause funnel in the cyclonic core; and the upward displacements and cold air in the field of annular tropopause ridge in the storm area.
This report is the summary of our studies on seasonal weather forecasting made during this year. (1) Empirical rules concerning seasonal weather forecasting were collected and arranged, several conclusions on mode of seasonal weather change deduced. (2) Anomaly of seasonal weather was researched and average which is most convenient for seasonal weather forecasting are derived. (3) Method of periodegram analysis was discussed and 5-day mean value of temperature was analysed.24 days',34 days' and 44 days' periodicity were found to be stable. (4) A method of extrapolation by such the periodicity was proposed which is applicable to the seasonal weather forecasting. (5) Mechanism of 34 days' periodicity was suggested, but we need further research to confirm the suggestion (6) The contents are following: 1. Preface 2. Brief history of the studies in seasonal forecasting in Japan 3. Weather proverbs on seasonal weather forecasting 4. Collection of correlation coefficients 5. Seasonal correlation 6. Meaning of seasonal forecasting 7. Basic change and perturbation 8. Statistical characters of perturbation 9. Time interval of the average in seasonal weather changes 10. Secular change of the normal values 11. Periodicity in seasonal weather changes 12. Periodograin analysis of 5-day mean values of temperature and pressure 13. Extrapolation by the periodicity 15.25.5 days' and 34 day' periodicities.
The cold fronts that passed Nagano and its neighbourhood in January, February, March and December 1946, are investigated. It is shown that when the air on the lee side of the mountain ranges is colder than the air in the rear of the cold front, it sometimes happens that this front does not overrun, but near the surface temperatures rise and frontal activities are weak, on account of the dynamical causes of foehn phenomena. Masked phenomena are treated from the standpoint of foehn phenomena. An example of masked phenomena of the second kind and snowfall in the monsoon at Nagano are investigated.
From the equations of motion including inertia terms, which are very difficult for integration, we can derive intermediate integrals in some cases, if we adopt the following assumptions: (A) motion is stationary, (B) motion is uniform in one direction, (C) fluid is autobarotropic, because, in this case, the equation of continuity becomes simple and the motion is expressed by applying a pseudo-streamline function. Here is stated the general process of integration, only in the case when Cartesian coordinates are used. The treatment of the case when curvilinear coordinates are used, will be reserved for another opportunity. Some of the applications of these integrals are already published by the author.
Concerning the influence of motion of air on the temperature lapse rate, there have been known several relations, for example Margules' formula concerning vertical motion of air, Byers' formula for application to isentropic weight chart, and Neamtan's stability tendency, etc. In this paper Margules' formula is derived in such a manner that it can be applied to motion in general, with sufficient approximation. Also, from Margules' equation Neamtan's stability tendency is derived. In the case of moist adiabatic change, it is shown that a formula analogous to Margules' can be derived. Application to weight chart in the case of moist adiabatic change is discussed. Also some applications of Charney's equation are discussed.
It is shown that, when a barotropic fluid has any steady, frictionless motion, the sum of the kinetic energy per unit mass, the geopotential and the barotropic pressure function has no variation along stream lines as well as the total vortex lins; hence the sum is constant upon each of a family of the Bernoullian surfaces containing the stream lines and the absolute vortex lines through the common points.
Ice crystals in the air or ice-needles were observed at Hailar, Manchuria(49&13'N,119&44'E,619.0m), especially, crystal forms and some physical properties were studied by means of microphotograpy. It was found that the greater part of the ice crystals in the air are formed in the lower atmosphere, less than 400 meters in height. 1) On the average, the ice crystals were observed on 45.4days in a winter at Hailar (Table 1). The mean temperature, mean of maximum temperature, mean of minimum temperature, absolute maximum temperature, absolute minimum temperature, and the number of days on which ice crystals were seen at Hailar for each month of the year are shown in Table 2. Ice crystals were observed from November to March only. The relation between mean temperature and the number of days with ice crystals are shown in Fig.1, where this relation is expressed by an almost straight in annual mean. But as shown in Fig.2 and 4, these individual points are distributed unsytematically. The distribution of the number of days with ice crystals in North Manchuria is shown in Fig.3. Ice crystals were observed frequently in north-western part of Manchuria, and at Hsingan most frequently. The daily change of ice crystals is shown in Fig.5, the maximum frequency is observed at 8-10o'clock. 2) The relation to air temperature (Table 4), to vapour pressure (Table 5), to wind direction and velocity (Table 6), and to cloud amount (Table 7) were also studied.
In rawin observation, we face many troubles, one of which is caused by ground-reflected waves. A conductive screen of knife-edge type is presented to get rid of this trouble with verified effectiveness. The method to determine the screen position and height is given based on the diffraction theory.
The disturbance of the atmospheric potential gradient, caused by the eruption-smoke of the Volcano Aso, was observed in the neighbourhood of the crater. It was found that the disturbance was positive when the volcanic ashes were falling. The negative disturbance was often observed in short durations when the tip of the smoke reached the zenith of the observing spot. The electrification of ashes by the mutual collision was investigated in the laboratory and it was found that the larger particle got the positive electricity and smaller particle the negative.
We surveyed the dwelling condition of the houses at Toyama Heights in Tokyo from the climatological point of view using the appraisal method for measuring the quality of housing and we appreciate, 1) the community consciousness of the occupants, 2) the present and future style of living of the occupants, 3) and the relation between the privacy of the houses and climate.
The formula expressing the saturation amount of the dissolved air in sea water was obtained. The result of calculation is given in Table 1. Since bubble formation in the sea depends on the pressure in situ, new concepts, the saturation amount in situ and the saturation percentage in situ were introduced. The possible causes of bubble formation were discussed and then graphical methods to compute the depth and the quantity of air to be evolved were obtained.
Using the occupied area in the fixed section by the oceanic current, we can represent to some extent the intensity of the Kurosiwo and the Oyasiwo. In the present paper, we can see that the Kurosiwo was very strong in 1948, and it was a little warmer in 1949 than the average year, and the Kurosiwo and the Oyasiwo were both strong from spring to early summer in 1950.