Heat and water-vapor budge t in large scale and small scale network are analysed by using radiosonde observations over the middle of the Japan Islands during the period from Feb.16th to Feb.20th,1962. The calculation scheme suitable for this analysis is introdu c e d at first. Budget of heat and water-vapor are compared mainly in the relation between the condensation and heating due to released latent heat. The problems of vertical eddy transport and liquid-water content are also discussed as the important factors in budget analysis. Finally, the results of heat and water-vapor budget are related to the synoptic weather situations.
Analyses were made on the synoptic situation over the Far East from Feb.16 to Feb.21,1962, during which minor outbreak of cold air from the continent was observed twice over Japan. The boundary region between the polar air a n d the subtropical air was found to be of multiple structure having breaks rather than a single substantial boundary layer separating two air masses.
The physical properties of the stable foam of sea water in situ, i. e. density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity etc., have not been fully studied, although they are very important factors in oceanography, especially relating the salty wind damages. In this paper, those properties were treated as fundamental constants on the preventions of the disasters, and they were measured at actual seashore and also the causes of stabilizing natural bubbles and foam were discussed shortly.
In the previous paper entitled “ High Winter Mortality of Seasonal Diseases ” (Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, Vol. XII, No.2,1961), I analyzed and explained the chronological changes in the calendars of seasonal diseases in the first half of the current century in Japan. I further traced the secular trends in the seasonal variation curves of deaths from major maladies and in the summer and winter death indices, thereby to find out the reasons responsible for such noteworthy fluctuations in mortality from diseases. I am inclined to continue my research and analysis by preparing seasonal disease calendars by age group in order to clarify the age structure of high winter mortality in recent years. In this paper, I try to make seasonal disease calendar models by period on the basis of my studies in mortality variation in five periods (1906-10,1912-16,1930-34,1952-56 and 1957-61) in Japan and models of the same kind by country according to various stages of civilization or socio-economic developmentthe United Kingdom as a highly advanced, Japan as a less-advanced and Egypt as an under-developed country. I also try to form a tentative modelling of the seasonal variation of deaths from various diseases. This paper, therefore, is intended to further the analysis and clarification of the ever-higher mortality in the cold season.
According to our analysis of the air occluded in sea ice which was collected in the Antarctic region, 0.1 to 0.5 ml/kg (at NTP) of carbon dioxide was contained. On the other hand, TORII et al (1959) showed that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in sea water in the Antarctic region often reaches as high as 6×10-4atm. p. Contribution of carbon dioxide which escapes in summer months from sea ice and sea water in the Antarctic was estimated. Results of calculation showed that though the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air due to the escape of carbon dioxide is small, the total amount of release is 1.8×1013g/y and 1.2×1014g/y respectively for sea ice and sea water. These amounts are comparable to the rate of production from other sources whose importance in the geochemical cycle of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been well established.