Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics
Online ISSN : 1880-6643
Print ISSN : 0031-126X
ISSN-L : 0031-126X
Volume 16, Issue 1
Displaying 1-6 of 6 articles from this issue
  • S. Matsumoto, K. Ninomiya
    1965 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 1-8
    Published: September 25, 1965
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    The cold vortex which passe d over Japan on February 2, 1964 had a typical structure of a somewhat small scale. A meso-scale disturbance and associated snowfall were observed in the vicinity of the cold dome center.
    Since this vortex moved eastward almost steadily, analysis were made by introducing time-space transformation technique.
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  • With special regards to gravity waves
    S. Matsumoto, K. Ninomiya
    1965 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 9-22
    Published: September 25, 1965
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    A considerable amount of s n owfall was observed on January 20 and February 2,1964 when the westerly troughs had passed over Japan. This was related to the meso-scale disturbance which developed in the vicinity of the cold dome rather than to the synoptic cyclone in front of the westerly trough.
    The meso-scale disturbance observed on February 2 associated a system of line echo and moved SSE-wards with a velocity of 100 km/hr and a period of 3 hrs. This phenomenon is well explained by the concept of internal gravity wave.
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  • M. Magata
    1965 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 23-37
    Published: September 25, 1965
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    The effect of the general cu r rent with vertical shear and the release of latent heat by condensation on the development of the sea breeze circulation is studied by the numerical experiment. In order to find out the reasonable distribution of the diffusion coefficient which decides the vertical transfer of heat and plays an important role in such an experiment, the calculated temperature distributions by the equation of diffusion are compared with the observation in the case of an inversion layer due to nocturnal radiation. A condition of heat balance at the earth's surface is given by taking into account insolation, nocturnal radiation, conduction and eddy transfer of heat.
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  • K. Sekihara
    1965 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 38-44
    Published: September 25, 1965
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    Solar and sky radiation falling on a tilted surface in Tokyo was calculated on the basis of sunshine recording data by use of the formulae proposed by PAGE. The results were compared with the observed global radiation and turned out to be in good agreement.
    The efficiency of the radiation collector was discussed as a function of the sloping angle of the plate. It was concluded that the maximum efficiency is to be obtained by a plate of a slope lower by several degrees than that of the latitudinal angle itself. The order of magnitude of that difference proved to be 1% or so.
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  • Masako Momiyama-Sakamoto
    1965 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 45-64
    Published: September 25, 1965
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    Relations between human diseases, particularly their incidence and seasonal changes, have long been studied by a number of scholars. It has recently been found that the variation of morbidity and mortality by disease is dependent upon socio-economic conditions as well as upon natural environments, meteorological and geographical, whereas the seasonal cycle has so far been reflected more or less in the distribution of various ailments. Take, for instance, dysentery, which formerly raged in the hot months. It now shows a very small hill in summer, and its morbidity in winter has been increasing year after year in proportion to the gradual decrease in summer.
    The seasonal variation of mortality by disease has also undergone marked changes. And these changes can be classified into two types: transitory and reversing.
    The transitory-type change is seen in cancer, which took the biggest toll in August in the first decades of the current century, but the mortality peak of which has moved from summer to autumn, October in particular. The coefficient of seasonal variation has shrunk from about 0.1 to 0.04, or nearly one half.
    The reversing-type change may further be divided into two subtypes, A and B. In subtype A the summer peak of mortality has caved off into a valley, while on the other hand the winter level, because of its minor decline, has been closed up as a new summit. Falling under this category are gastritis-enteritis group avitaminosis (hen-ben) and tuberculosis. In the case of Subtype B, there were formerly two peaks, one in summer and the other in winter, but now the summit remains intact only in the cold season, whereas it has completely disappeared in the hot season. Diseases registering such seasonal variation of incidence are apoplexy, heart disease and senility.
    What are the factors responsible for such seasonal changes in mortality ? As for the infirmities of age, high mortality in summer may be considered as having come from the bad influence of the hot season upon old patients and the lack of medical services for them in former times. The recent development of medicine and pharmacology, however, has come to enable old cases to survive the effects of summer heat, but they cannot endure winter cold. This also may be mentioned as one of the factors. As another cause may be mentioned the recent contraction of seasonal variation in major physical functions of the human body, such as basal metabolism and blood specific gravity of red corpuscles.
    The retardation of mortality claims closer attention. After the Second World War, mortality markedly declined for many diseases, but it has come to mark time of late. Signs of such retardation can be seen in every season for pneumonia, enteritis, tuberculosis and other germ diseases. On the other hand, incidence has been on the steady increase, particularly in winter, for apoplexy, heart disease and other senile maladies, probably because old people have been increasing relatively in the population structure.
    Diseases showing marked seasonal variation in morbidity and mortality have long been called “ seasonal diseases ”. But this is not an exact definition, gividg an impression that seasonal changes are reflected, as they stand, in the occurrence and incidence of diseases. In fact, many of the so-called seasonal diseases have proved not seasonal in nature.
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  • K. Maeda, T. Suda
    1965 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 65-75
    Published: September 25, 1965
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    La variation quasi biennale des rayons cosmiques dans la région tropicale a été estimée théoriquement, en se basant sur les résultats obtenus par la récente investigation météorologique de Reed. On peut prédire que l'amplitude sera presque 0.03% pour l'intensité ordinaire et supérieure à 0.2% pour l'intensité sous-terraine, respectivement. Parce que ces derniers résultats ne sont pas disponibles à présent, l'analyse spectrale n'est appliquée qu'aux données des chambres d'ionisation. On peut montrer que le plus grand sommet du spectre d'amplitude est situé dans les périodes qui s'étendent de 16 mois à 60 mois sur la base des données sans l'agitation géomagnétique de Huancayo (12°S). Cependant celles de Cheltenham (39°N) montrent non seulement la variation saisonnière (c'est-à-dire, annuelle) bien connue, mais aussi des sommets moins élevés d' environ 24 et 40 mois, quoique la signification de ces sommets dans ces deux cas ne soit pas encore suffisamment comprise.
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