Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics
Online ISSN : 1880-6643
Print ISSN : 0031-126X
ISSN-L : 0031-126X
Volume 26 , Issue 2
Showing 1-4 articles out of 4 articles from the selected issue
  • Masako Momiyama-Sakamoto, Juichiro Takeuchi, Kunie Katayama
    1975 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 9-34
    Published: August 25, 1975
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    With the approach of the 1970's, indications are increasing that the seasonal variation has been getting considerably moderate, i. e. the steady flattening of the winter peak plus the gradual pickup of deaths, simultaneously with the contraction of the death rate. In other words, the seasonal variation itself can be said to be approaching to the extent of deseasonality as already witnessed somehow or other in the North European and North American countries. Such a new trend is seen not only for old people affected mostly by cerebrovascular diseases but also for early infancy under 1 year. Particularly remarkable is the considerable flattening of the variation curve for infant mortality.
    A study of death causes for total mortality in the past decades reveals, among others, that communicable diseases account for as much as 46%, contrasted to not more than 13% for senile diseases in the 1930's. The share declines sharply for communicable diseases but rises up for senile ailments to 52% in the 1960's and to 65% in the 1970's, compared with 70% or so in the United Kingdom and United States.
    As for cerebrovascular diseases, the seasonal variation is bimodal up to the 1940's, but in the 1950's and 1960's it, changes to the pattern of concentration in winter. Quite recently (1971-73) the winter peak gets tangibly lower, indicative of a visible moderation. A detailed study reveals, however, that the seasonal variation differs widely between cerebral haemorrhage and cerebral thrombosis-embolism, with deaths concentrated in the cold season for the former and with two maxima, a peak in winter and a lower hill in summer, for the latter. Moreover, there is an increasing possibility that the mortality of the latter will curve up on the whole with its summer hill getting more prominent than ever.
    Particularly conspicuous is the recent change in the seasonal variation of infant mortality. When the bimodal pattern prevailed in the early decades, death concentration in the cold season wes much more notable for early infancy, but in recent years the winter peak gets lower year after year and stands nearly on the equal level as the summer hillthe gradual return of the bimodal variation pattern with two equally high hills, strikingly contrasted to the 1940-59 bimodal pattern with a prominently high peak in winter.
    The return of a summer hill, as seen in infant mortality, claims careful consideration. The winter peak, caused mostly by pneumonia-bronchitis, for instance, has got sharply lower and come to stand as high as the newlyformed summer hill quite recently (1971-73). Such bimodal variation of infant mortality can be regarded as indicating the natural picture of morbidity and mortality inherent in human beings which remain unarrested in spite of all the efforts in every field for better environment and better health.
    In order to understand and better visualize the seasonal variation of mortality since the start of the current century and the notable changes recently appearing in the seasonal variation, seasonal variation patterns (models) are drawn decade by decade for important death causes, such as gastroenteritis, tuberculosis, pneumonia-bronchitis and cerebrovascular diseases.
    The 1912-73 time series of both the summer and the winter death indices are drawn to see their respective behavior and mutual relationship for tuberculosis, gastroenteritis, cerebrovascular diseases, heart disease and pneumonia-bronchitis.
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  • Junji Sato
    1975 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 35-46
    Published: August 25, 1975
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to study the characteristics of turbulent diffusion over an urban area, constant-volume balloons with transponders were released at altitudes of 200 and 400 m, and their behavior was observed over the Tokyo Metropolitan area.
    The atmos p heric diffusivities are derived from the Lagrangian properties of the balloons, in relation to the temperature lapse rate and the turbulent intensity. The result shows that the lateral diffusivity, Ky, has no direct relation to the lapse rate or the turbulent intensity. However, the vertical diffusivity, IC, is closely related with the lapse rate as well as with the turbulent intensity.
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  • Yukio Sugimura, Yasuo Miyake, Hatsue Yanagawa
    1975 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 47-54
    Published: August 25, 1975
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The major and some of the m inor constituents and the rate of accumulation of manganese nodules in the western North Pacific were determined. Manganese concentration in the nodules ranged from 20 to 30 per cent in the acid soluble fraction. As to the rare earth concentration, enrichment of cerium was observed in the manganese nodule as compared with that in shales or sea water. Thorium to uranium ratio in the nodule ranged from 9.4 to 14.3, which was very much higher than that in sea water. From the distribution of excess ionium, excess protactinium and Io/Th ratio, a rate of accumulation of 7mm per million years was obtained with the surface layer of several mm in thickness of the JEDS-4-E4 nodule.
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  • Masamori Miyazaki, Masami Okada
    1975 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 55-62
    Published: August 25, 1975
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    On 21 August,1970, a severe typhoon (Typhoon 7010) struck the Shikoku area and induced heavy storm surges along the coast of Tosa Bay (Fig.1). The highest sea level measured by the high water mark (not the smoothed tide) was 2.4 in higher than normal at Katsurahama, situated at the entrance of the channel to Kochi harbour. This value of deviation is far larger than estimations by former experimental laws.
    Numerical simulations are made for this case an d the case of a larger typhoon (Ise Bay Typhoon), in which we assume smaller frictions for sea surface winds and that the sea surface elevation is twice the hydrostatic estimation at she outer edge of the continental shelf. The area of computation is shown in Fig.2.
    The computed peak s u rge at Katsurahama is 1.9m. The observed value 2.4 m would include some effects of wind waves, and the computed value 1.9m seems to be a good estimation. Time variations of computed and observed surges are compared in Fig.3, and an example of the horizontal storm-surge patterns is shown in Fig.5, respectively. Storm surges in Tosa Bay for the case where an Ise Bay Typhhon model runs the same track are also computed, and results are shown in Fig.4 and Fig.6.
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