Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics
Online ISSN : 1880-6643
Print ISSN : 0031-126X
ISSN-L : 0031-126X
Volume 17, Issue 4
Displaying 1-4 of 4 articles from this issue
  • E. Uchida
    1966 Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 225-278
    Published: 1966
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    In order to study the characteristics of cloud condensation nuclei and the mechanism of the development of cloud droplets, several elements of cloud physics (Aitken condensation nuclei, cloud droplets, cloud water, cloud condensation nuclei, etc.... ) were observed at the summit of Mt. Ibuki and the side of Mt. Fuji, and by aircraft above the KantO District. The clouds were, generally, fair-weather cumuli or shallow strato-cumuli developing in the west wind.
    The atmospheric stab i lity in a layer of 1000 m which includes the observational site was calculated for the purpose of comparing the microstructure of cloud with the turbulent condition of the vertical air stream.
    As the instability of the layer increased, the percentage distrib u tion of sea-salt giant nuclei for each droplet-size fraction changed and the enrichment coefficients
    [{(Ca or SO4) /Cl}/cloud water/{ (Ca or SO4)/Cl}sea water]
    The results are discussed for each item of the elements. The “Monte Carlo Method” is especially applied to calculating the stochastic condensation growth of droplets. Only under the fluctuation of humidity do a few sea-salt giant nuclei in the nucleus population have the abilities for growing up to fairly larger sizes than expected from the mean growth under a constant humidity. From this stochastic calculation the observational results about cloud nuclei can be analysed. Furthermore, the technical improvement of instruments and the analysis of cloud droplet and condensation nuclei spectra are carried out.
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  • Features of Seasonal Variation of Mortality
    M. Momiyama(Sakamoto), K. Katayama
    1966 Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 279-286
    Published: 1966
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    In the United States of America, the seasonal fluctuation of the death index by age is found to be rather moderate for all the age groups, and little variation is seen particularly for infants. On the other hand, the death index curve rises for old age groups, though much less sharp than in the United Kingdom and Japan, in the cold season. Generally speaking, the moderate curve of the death index is ascribed to the wider use of the effective room heating system: that is, protected by the artificial weather thus brought about, the American people do not appear to be affected by the seasonal change so markedly as other nations.
    It is worth mentioning however, that the death index curve behaves differently for the Whites and Nonwhites. Two peaks appear for the latter, one in summer and the other in winter, whereas only one summit appears in winter for the former. Based upon the extensive study of mortality statistics in Japan and other countries, this can be said to have resulted from the lower standard of living granted to the Nonwhites in the United States.
    As the r e sult of our study in the seasonal variation of mortality, particularly that by age group, in the United States, it has become clear that the death index curve in that country widely differs from that in England (including Wales) and Japan. This is a preliminary report, which will be followed by additional analyses.
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  • Goji Horiuchi
    1966 Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 287-299
    Published: 1966
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    In this paper are presented researches on NO and NO+ concentrations in the lower thermosphere of 50-200 km region in view of ion chemistry.
    Consideration is also taken of the N atom and other posi t i ve ions. It is then shown that the recent observations on NO and positive ion concentration are generally consistent with the results theoretically obtained except for the D-Iayer where negative ion contribution might be expected.
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  • J. Kobayashi, F. Kitahara, S. Ohta, H. Naito
    1966 Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 300-317
    Published: 1966
    Released on J-STAGE: December 11, 2012
    A new type of radiosonde is described which is suitable for use in measuring the vertical profile of temperature in the lower portion of the atmosphere and investigating the diffusion of atmospheric pollution.
    A bead-type glass thermistor is used for measuring the air temperature with an accuracy of ±0.2°C within the range from 35°C to -25°C and a windmill for measuring the height with an accuracy of ±6 meters at the maximum wind course of about 600 meters in any type of weather except strong wind above 15 m/sec, heavy rain and snow. Data telemetry is accomplished by connection of these sensors to a transistorized audiofrequency type radiosonde. Each record for meteorological variables such as temperature and height is read out by use of a linearly graduated scale.
    This device is distinguished by simplicity in construction, light weight, cheap price and good measuring accuracy. As illustrations, the meteorological da t a regarding inversion layers below 625 meters, which were obtained at Okuma, Fukushima, Japan, during the period from February 25 to 27 in 1966, are presented.
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