Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics
Online ISSN : 1880-6643
Print ISSN : 0031-126X
ISSN-L : 0031-126X
Volume 18 , Issue 4
Showing 1-3 articles out of 3 articles from the selected issue
  • R. Cecil Gentry
    1967 Volume 18 Issue 4 Pages 293-310
    Published: 1967
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Extensive reconnaissance of m ature Hurricane Isbell was made October 14,1964. Data collected at 850 mb,700 mb,550 mb,200 mb,150 mb, and in the lower stratosphere reveal that the storm had a warm core (up to 15°C above normal in the eye) from sea level up to 115 mb and a cold core between 115 mb and 90 mb. Convection in the storm was very intense and clouds rose into the stratosphere, with isolated clouds projecting 2.5 km above the tropopause. The lower stratosphere (up to 4000 ft above the tropopause) had temperatures ranging from 1.8°C to 7.6°C below normal. Even in the stratosphere, which had a very stable lapse rate, there were temperature gradients as large as 5°C per 10 n miles in the vicinity of the hurricane center.
    The cyclon i c wind circulation decreased from a maximum of 116 kt at low levels to near zero at 115 mb, and increased, relatively, in the layer near the tropopause. Data were insufficient, however, to verify whether the very weak wind field measured at the tropopause and in the lower stratosphere was actually cyclonic.
    The tropopause was abnormally high and cold above the hurricane with the height varying inversely with distance from the storm, at least beyond the vicinity of the eye wall. Data were insufficient to define the slope of the tropopause over the eye and eye wall.
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  • Yasuo Miyake, Teruko Kanazawa
    1967 Volume 18 Issue 4 Pages 311-326
    Published: 1967
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The seasonal variations of a t m ospheric ozone and Sr-90 fallout were compared at various stations in Canada, India, Japan, UK and USA. The results showed that in the ozone variation 17 out of 43 peaks were observed in March and 11 in April, while the troughs were observed mostly in October and November. For Sr-90 fallout most of the maxima appeared in April and May and the minima from August to October. It is pointed out that as rates of out-flow of ozone and radioactive debris from the stratosphere should be proportional, the rapid removal with seasonal variation must be taken into account in studying the ozone budget in the stratosphere.
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  • Koichiro Takahashi
    1967 Volume 18 Issue 4 Pages 327-343
    Published: 1967
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Statistical characteristics of maximum values during N years observation, which are one of the most important factors in determining design load, are investigated by means of the Monte Carlo method. A model time series of annual maximum values of a hypothetical meteorological element is made by means of Monte Carlo method, under the assumption that the annual maximum is independent on each other.
    A set of 4 figures of random number is assumed to express an excess probability of an annual maximum value. This excess probability is converted to the annual maximum value by taking a proper excess probability function. Such sets of random numbers are selected from random number tables, and a sufficiently long model time series of annual maximum values is made.
    It is found that unexpectedly large values often appear in the curve of the model time series. This is neither error nor exception; it can be explained theoretically.
    Next, the frequency distribution of maximum values in a period of N years for the above model time series is obtained and its characteristics are investigated. The linear logarithmic relationship between the maximum value within an observed period and the observation length N is shown to be correct in some cases, but in others it is not correct. It is dependent on the functional form of excess probability.
    Hazen, Fuller, Gringorten and others have derived different equations which express the relation between the return period and N years observational data. According to the present investigation, this difference is explained by the difference of excess probability of annual maximum values. In the case of maximum wind speed and maximum daily amount of precipitation, Hazen's formula may be applicable.
    N-year value, i. e., a value for N years return period is calculated by samples of the model time series, assuming that Hazen's formula is correct and the numerical factors of the population are unknown. The errors of estimated values are calculated by comparing them with the given value of the population. The error increases with the increase of the return period and decrease of the number of observations. An empirical formula for estimating errors of calculation is derived.
    The life length of a construction, which is made by taking a design load equal to the observed maximum load in the past N years multiplied by safety factor a, is investigated. Variance of such life length is quite large and its expectancy is calculated to be infinity. When the risk of destruction is equal, the safety factor decreases with the increase of observational length. An empirical formula to estimate the degree of safety of the construction is obtained.
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