Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics
Online ISSN : 1880-6643
Print ISSN : 0031-126X
ISSN-L : 0031-126X
Volume 7 , Issue 4
Showing 1-9 articles out of 9 articles from the selected issue
  • Tidal Oscillation on the Sun as the Cause of the Periodicities in the Meteorological Phenomena
    K. Takahashi
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 347-357
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tidal oscillations on the sun raised by the planets, such as Jupiter, Venus, Earth and Mercury, were calculated assuming an equilibrium theory. The calculated periods of the main tides were 12.6, 14.1, 13.4, 17.5 and 14.6 days (corresponding to semidiurnal tides in the ocean),3.89, 6.55, 1.475, 9.59, 2.375, 3.013, 13.318, 1.903, 5.576 and 2.890, months (corresponding to long periodic tides). Such periodicities were searched for in the sunspots, the solar constants,700 mb heights, surface pressures and others, and it was proved that some of them were statistically significant. We may conclude, therefore, that the solar activities are affected by the tidal oscillations, and such periodicities appear in the atmosphere through solar radiations though the mechanism is not clear. The order of magnitudes of the relative amplitudes of such periodicities was 10-4∼10-5 for both solar activities and meteorological phenomena. Therefore, such variation may be neglected so far as daily variations are concerned, but, it cannot be neglected in dealing with monthly or annual variations in the meteorological phenomena.
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  • T. Murakami
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 358-376
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In June, there is a marked zone of downward motion over the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, the maximum value of which reaches 10 (mb⋅12hr-1) at 850-mb. It is also apparent that a distinct belt of upward motion extends from the south of Japan eastwards along the latitude circle.
    Of considerable significance in the patterns of atmospheric heatsources in June is the existence of a broad zone of cooling over the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk. The maximum value of this cooling at 850-mb is about 2 × 10-1 (cal gr-1 12 hr-1).
    Such distributions of mean vertical motions a nd heat-sources show good correspondence with common experience concerning Baiu, which is the rainy season in Japan.
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  • H. Itoo, Y. Masuda
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 377-389
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using the relay computer, numerical predictions of the typhoon movement are performed by the barotropic model successively with many time steps of small time interval. In the problems of the typhoon prediction, the large truncation errors especially near the typhoon center seriously affect the forecast of typhoon movement. So, in this paper, to reduce such truncation errors, a certain smoothing procedure is taken, and the barotropic forecast is applied to the smoothing map at 700 mb and 500 mb level.
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  • M. Sanuki, S. Kimura, S. Toyama
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 390-392
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    With a view to investigating the characteristics of a streamer as a wind-direction indicator, a model of cylindrical streamer is tested in the wind tunnel concerning the time constant of its performed damped oscillation in the tunnel current. For comparison a stiff cylindrical wind vane of precisely the same dimensions is also tested. The measurement is carried out in four steps of wind speed up to 20m/s. It is found that the time constant of the streamer is utterly constant independent of wind speed, which fact stands in contrast to the case of most wind vanes where the time constant is inversely proportional to the wind speed.
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  • K. Kawamura
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 393-399
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relations between the amount of atmospheric ozone observed at Tokyo for the period from 1953 to 1955 and the upper meteorological conditions were studied.
    Day-to-day variations of the ozone amount are generally explained with the conception of upper pressure pattern, that is a high ozone amount near a trough and a low amount near a ridge. But, in addition to this the vertical motions of the upper atmospheric air accompanied by a jet stream may be considered as a secondary effect. Moreover, in the southern-most region of the trough at 300mb level, ozone variations were essentially small. The result shows that in this region the intensity of the vertical motions of the air contributing to ozone variation is less than in the other regions of the trough.
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  • Study of Lightning Discharge (I)
    N. Kitagawa
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 400-414
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Field-changes due to lightn i ng discharges are investigated by simultaneous recording by means of electrostatic fluxmeter and amplifier oscillograph. It has been made clear that the leader to the 1st return stroke is always a stepped leader, because successive pulses having regular intervals corresponding to those of the stepped leader are always recorded in the 1st leader field-change of the ground flash. The most frequent pulse intervals are 40∼60 m-sec; they are generally longer in the initial part and gradually become shorter towards the final part where they heve the minimum value of 13 μ-sec immediately before the return stroke. The leader field-change preceding the successive rapid change also contains a succession of pulses having the uniform interval of 13 μ-sec, and consequently the dart leader is considered to progress with some stepping processes repeated with this short time interval. It can be concluded that the negative streamers such as stepped and dart leaders progress with some stepping processes which cause a succession of pulses in its electric fieldchange.
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  • Study of Lightning Discharge (II)
    N. Kitagawa
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 415-424
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Investigation of the field-change due to cloud flash and junction process in the multiple ground flash leads to the conclusion that they progress continuously in the cloud without repeating any stepping process involved essentially in the negative streamer such as the stepped or dart leader. They are both positive streamers and are considered to have a similar nature to the continuous current observed in lightning to the Empire State Building.
    Small rapid discharges overlap this continuous discharge at irregular time intervals. These phenomena are considered to be caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of negative charge in the cloud, i.e. the small rapid discharge occurs every time when the top of the positive streamer reaches the region where negative charge is densely concentrated. It is probable that the small rapid discharge refreshes the part of the ionized path previously made by the positive streamer, preceding stroke, etc. and has the same nature as that of the dart leader. In case of the flash to the ground, the negative charge consumed by the small rapid discharge may not be enough to refresh the whole path and consequently the return stroke does not occur.
    Analysis of the intervals of small rapid discharges shows that such dense concentrations of negative charge in the cloud are distributed with spatial intervals of some 500 m (range 100∼1000 m), coinciding with the dimensions of the sub-cell of the thundercloud.
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  • M. Nakano
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 425-434
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A description is given o f some results of observations on the eddies of Naruto Strait, with special reference to their sizes, lives and periods of gyration. Moreover, a discussion is made on the secondary undulations of tides in Sioyasumi Bay caused by the eddy current of the Strait.
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  • The Effects of Mountain Residence on Vasomotor Reflex and 17-Ketosteroid
    K. Kamiyama, T. Kashiwagi, N. Yano, M. Moriguchi, H. Naruse, H. Yamagu ...
    1957 Volume 7 Issue 4 Pages 435-440
    Published: March 31, 1957
    Released: December 11, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The variation of the type of peripheral vasomotor reflex was observed by plethysmograph after deep breathing and exposure to the wind at Mt. Norikura. The plethysmograms obtained were divided into four types, and those were daily observed, taking up the variation by the combination of those types as a mark of stereotype. The values of variation were remarkably large in the early period of mountain residence, at the station of 2,720 meters above the sea level on Mt. Norikura.
    Blood pres s ure was higher on the mountain than on the level ground, and the difference between the maximum and the minimum blood pressure was considerably large in the early period of residence. When the variation of excreted volume of 17-Ketosteroid was large, that of stereotype was large, and when the former was small, the latter was small too. In other words, the large excreted volume of 17-Kethosteroid showed the large variation of stereotype.
    Blood pressure was more influenced by mete o rological conditions on the mountain than on the level ground.
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