5-day mean 700-mb anomaly charts for the Far East were classified into 21 types. Frequencies of the charts for each type showed marked annual change. The persistence and the transition probability between the types were calculated.
The useful rules to estimate the anomaly of 5-day mean surface temperature by using the anomaly chart of 5-day mean 700-mb height are studied and the following results are obtained. 1) Positive height anomaly at 700-mb level is generally associated with positive anomaly of the surface temperature, while, in case of negative height anomaly, relation between them is rather complex. But it correlates rather well with warm or cold air advection on the 700-mb anomaly chart. 2) The correlation field between the surface temperature anomaly at Tokyo and the anomaly of 700-mb height over East Asia are shown in Fig.1. These patterns show that anomaly of the surface temperature is mainly influenced by the large scale disturbances in westerlies. 3) Correlations between the surface temperature anomaly at Tokyo and various elements such as anomaly of Zonal Index, Meridional Index and vorticity are calculated.
Relationships of the 5-day mean 700-mb height anomaly pattern to the distribution of 5-day precipitaion amount over Japan are studied. Results suggest to us that the occurrence of a certain height anomaly pattern is connected well with the annual course, and that the relationship should be studied about every type of height anomaly pattern in every season or semi-season.
This paper is a study on the relation between the surface weather maps and the standard types of 5-day mean 700-mb anomaly charts.5-day mean anomaly charts on the 700-mb height and the weather change on the surface are closely correlated, and the frequency of the weather types on the surface for each of the standard types of 5-day mean 700-mb anomaly charts is obtained. And the movement of cyclones, typhoons and migrating anticyclones is described for the 700-mb anomaly charts.
The height of 10∼12 km has been selected as an appropriate level for drifting of balloon bombs, for this level is the well-defined isopycnic level with maximum westerly currents. During the winter of 1944∼1945,9,000 balloons were sent out to the United States from Japan, for the winter season is characterized by heavy baroclinicy in middle latitudes and hence the greatest strength of the westerlies is found. Two or three days will be enough to send balloons through the upper troposphere if the conditions are favourable.
Biplane wind vanes with five interplane angles combined with two arm lengths are tested in wind tunnel concerning the time constant of their performed damped oscillation in the tunnel current. The observation is carried out in four steps of wind speed up to 20 m/s. The time constants are investigated with respect to the interplane angle and arm length of the vane combination.
to find the effects of artificial rain-making. Taking a distilled water drop, a drop of silver iodide suspension in pure water and further a rain drop, their freezing temperature was observed. As the variance of the temperature was great in each case, some improvement was found necessary for practical use.
The atmospheric dust in Tokyo was collected on the ground in winter with the jet dust counter and was observed with the electronmicr oscope. In tha t observation, it was seen that the greater part of samples was constituted from carbon black and also many water-soluble substances of about 1 μ or less were seen in the samples collected from among “ Smog ”.
The present investigation is based upon the data observed at the Ocean Weather Stations “ Extra ” (39°N,153°E) and “ Tango ” (29°N,135°E) from March 1948 to November 1953. Notable features of the annual variations of the air and the sea-surface temperatures and the wind are described, the comparison being made between the two stations. Some relationships between those elements are examined. It is found that a very high correlation exists between the air and the sea-surface temperature anomalies during the warm season (from May to October) and, on the other hand, that during the cold season (from November to April) the air temperature anomaly is more closely associated with the anomaly of the NS component of wind rather than with the sea-surface temperature.
The author's intention is to investigate the variation of hydrographic conditions in the sea region of the Ocean Weather Station “ Extra ” (39°N,153°E) from the standpoint of heat balance. The heat exchange between sea and atmosphere, also, is examined for the same region, which examination is necessary for carrying out the said intention. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) The evaporation from the sea surface, the “ BOWEN ratio ”, the sensible heat given to the atmosphere, and the total energy loss from the sea surface have all a similar type of seasonal variation, with larger values in winter and smaller ones in summer. 2) On an annual average, the amount of hea t brought into the region of St. “ Extra ” by ocean currents is comparable to the amount of heat used for evaporation which is about twice as large as the effective radiation, and plays the most important part in the heat balance. Of course, the relations are different for the seasonal and the monthly values. 3) St. “Extra”, when compared with another Ocean Weather Station “ Tango ” (29°N,135°E) on the Sea adjacent to Japan, is characterized, in general, by a little lower evaporation, much greater sensible heat exchange, and, in annual mean, greater total energy exchange. 4) The most important conclusion as to the seasonal variation of hydrographic conditions is that the Kuroshio water is ordinarily prevalent in the region of St. “ Extra ” from spring to autumn, while in winter a water mass of Oyashio origin predominantly flows into this region.
We devised a new sensitive piezo-plethysmograph the transducer of which was made of rochell salt crystal. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the mechanism of the plethysmograph and to point out some of the fundamental aspects of applying the plethysmograph to several clinical problems. Spontane gangren e disease processes to insulin stress will be presented in detail.