A remarkable inversion layer was observed over the Japan Sea under a winter monsoon situation on Jan.30,1965. Detailed analysis on the structure of this inversion layer and on the behavior of the cumulus convection in the sub-inversion layer is made by using the data of dropsonde and aerial photographic observations. It is found that the convective clouds exist only in sub-inversion layer and no evidence of air mass modification is observed above the inversion. Also a high correlation between the mesoscale undulation of the inversion layer and the groups of active convections is analysed.
The design and operation of a simpie ozone generator and its calibrator is described. The generator is designed to operate over a range of ozone concentrations from 20 to 100,000 μg/m3. The operation of the generator is based on the so-called spark discharge method. It consists essentially of a discharge tube and a dehydrator and gives reasonably constant ozone concentration air stream during the calibration of ozone sensors. The calibrator is designed to operate over a range of ozone d ensities from 20 to 600 μg/m3. It is based on Faraday's law of electrolysis, and the fact that the ozone concentration in the air can be determined by measuring the time needed for consuming a known amount of sodium thiosulfate in a potassium iodide solution. It is almost similar to Ehmert's method. The whole system, both the generator and the calibrator, gives a measuring error within ±3%.
An optical method is described for the measurement of the vertical distribution of atmospheric ozone in the upper atmosphere by means of the sounding balloon. The determination of the amount of ozone in the air above the instrument is done by measuring the intensities of two beams of the sunlight and calculating their ratio in intensity: one corresponds to the light intensity at the wavelength of 3050 Å and the other to that at the wavelength of 3400 Å. The half-width of each spectrum is about 270 Å and 120 Å respectively. The essential part of the instrument consists of a light collector, optical filters, a photocell, an a, c. amplifier with a chopping circuit and a telemetering system. The measured values corresponding to each spectrum are sent to the ground stations together with the other meteorological elements such as air temperature and pressure by use of the so-called audio-frequency type transmitter. Two examples of flight results are presented and discussed.
A device for measuring the concentration of atmospheric ozone is described which utilizes the well-known potassium iodide method. Its operational principle is based on the reaction of o zone with a neutrally buffered potassium iodide solution containing a known amount of sodium thiosulf ate and the libration of iodine in the solution by means of electrolysis. It consists essentially of a detector for monitoring the depolarizing action of the neutral iodide, a device for electrolysing the solution at a constant rate and a device for titrating the calibrated quantity of sodium thiosulfate into the solution. The sensitivity of this device is about 2 x 10-6 g/m3/sec and the response time is about 30 seconds. The method is based on the absolute calibration, so long as no contamination effect exists. The device can be attached to various kinds of radiosondes and it is also applicable to the continuous monitoring of ozone at the ground. Several successful flight results are sho w n and discussed from an instrumental standpoint.
A device is described that is suitable for use in measuring the vertical distribution of atmospheric ozone up to 30 km. The method is based on the principle of detecting the reaction of ozone with a neutral buffered halide solution coulometrically, wherein free halogen is liberated. It consists of a platinum gauze cathode and an active carbon anode which are immersed in the solution. When the air containing ozone is drawn into the reaction cell at a constant rate, the electrical current dependent on the ozone amount aspirated flows through the output circuit between the two electrodes. The resulting current is impressed on an amplifier, whose output varies with the magnitude of the input current. Data telemetry is accomplished by periodic connection of the sensor to the radiosonde transmitter. The error in the measured value is estimated to be within ±2%, provided that the shift in background current is corrected, judging from the comparison of the vertically integrated ozone amount with the total amount of ozone measured by the Dobson's spectrometer method. This device is simple in construction, low in cost, easy to handle and stable in operation. Several successful flight re s ults are discussed from the standpoint of instrumentation.