In this experiment, it was examined whether it is possible to detect what was presented subliminally when feedback (correct or incorrect) was given. Sixteen healthy right-handed undergraduate and graduate students were participated as subjects. Three (facial emotions: angry, happy, neutral) x three (feedback: available, no, random) factors were located within a subject. After a mask stimulus (neutral face) was presented, subjects were required to answer what was presented as a prime face by pressing one of three buttons. After subject's response, feedback was given as "correct" or "wrong" in feedback-available condition and "00000" in no feedback condition. In random feedback condition, the probability of presenting "correct" and "incorrect" was fixed as 3:7. ANOVA was performed on result of RT, hit rate, and d'. As for RT, the main effect of feedback was significant. As for hit rate, the interaction between facial expressions and feedback conditions was significant. Multiple comparison corrected by LSD on angry face revealed marginal significance between feedback-available and no-feedback, and significant difference between random-feedback and no-feedback. On neutral face, significant difference was found between feedback-available and no-feedback, and feedback-available and random feedback. In angry face condition, hit rate was lower than other conditions, and in neutral face condition, feedback-available condition showed lower hit rate than other conditions. About d', significant difference was not found among conditions. From above, it could be said that in no-feedback condition primed stimuli tend to be judged as neutral, but as long as feedback was given, subject's judgments shifted to answer that the prime was angry face.
To develop the norm of three-word recall and logical memory recall tests for Japanese, 420 rural community dwellers age from 40 to 89 years old participated in this study. They were given the three-word recall test and the logical memory test as a part of cognitive ability assessment test battery. The norms for the three-word recall and the logical memory that related to age and sex were developed. The performance of three-word recall and logical memory performances were declined gradually as age increased. The age-related changes in performance of the three-word recall and logical memory were not necessarily identical as well as the effect of education and sex difference. The usability of the three-word recall and the logical memory recall was discussed.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the method to exclude the influence of misinformation on person perception. Guided by the situation model, it was predicted that the misinformation was less likely to influence on the judgment about the person if the misinformation and correct information described the person in different situations. Forty participants read the story about the course of an accident that contained the information indicating that the arrested suspect was not the true criminal. They then rated the impression of the person and performed recognition tasks. Results indicated that the misinformation was less likely to influence the judgment when the situation described in the misinformation was different from that in the correct information. It was argued that the correct information have an effect to deny the misinformation when they describes the person in different situations since it lead to different person representations.
This paper reviewed the present conditions and problems of family assessments from a viewpoint of clinical psychology to support client with problems. As a result of having surveyed studies about family assessment method, it was suggested that the symbol placement techniques (ex. Family System Test, Doll Location Test) that can grasp family relations quantitatively and quality are effective in clinical scenes.
In 2004, The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties Tokyo announced astonishing results of the scientific research on OGATA Korin's Folding Screen with Red and White Plums. According to the report there were many discoveries previously invisible to unequipped eyes not only of us but also of trained art historians of Japanese art, but among these discoveries the most surprising one to the art historians was the fact that Korin did not use gold leaf for its background but only coated it with gold-dust and a kind of vegetable dye called Kariyasu. They were forced to alter their interpretation on the authorial intention and concluded that the intention of the author was to make believe his audience. But does the significance of the scientific research or technical examination end up with the mere alteration of authorial intention? Is it enough to shift the interpretative responsibility onto the silent author? To make this point clear I examined whether the discovery can be exhaustedly interpreted with the frame of "partial and moderate intentionalism". After comparing the interpretation of pentimento revealed in Johannes Vermeer's Young Woman Reading a Letter at an Open Window and of gold-like depiction in Nicolas Poussin's The Adoration of the Golden Calf with Korin's case, it becomes clear that the real significance of the scientific research is in the revelation of some wrong interpretative assumptions with which art historians of Japanese art interpret their object, especially their arbitrary use of genre. In addition it also revealed the prevalence of another interpretative method which does not aim at authorial intention. It is the method that treats every single point on a painting as perfectly equivalent material with no regard to genre, subject, motif, nationality, and authorial intention.
In order to investigate the relation between the words that the word "radiation" reminds people of and their attitude toward radiation, 107 participants performed a lexical decision task in a priming paradigm and an evaluation task. The former task examined which category of target words (positive, neutral, and negative) was automatically activated by the word "radiation". In the latter, the attitude toward the stimulus words of the lexical decision task, including "radiation", was measured. A comparison between the participants having a positive attitude towards radiation (the positive group) and those having a negative attitude (the negative group) showed that the priming word "radiation" facilitated the reaction time of the positive group toward the negative target words, and that the priming effect for the negative words was larger in the positive group than in the negative group. These findings indicate that those having a positive attitude toward radiation have a structured knowledge of words related with radiation, which is structured with the value (good and not good), and that the knowledge on radiation of those having a negative attitude is relatively unstructured.