人間環境学研究
Online ISSN : 1883-7611
Print ISSN : 1348-5253
ISSN-L : 1348-5253
2 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
論文
  • 松井 三枝
    2004 年 2 巻 1 号 p. 1_1-1_8
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    従来、健忘症患者の報告から、海馬体が記憶機能に重要な役割を果たすとされてきた。さらに、人間以外の霊長類やラットによる多くの実験研究から、海馬体のみならず、その周辺の皮質構造も記憶機能に関与してきていることが指摘されてきた。すなわち、記憶障害の原因として海馬体だけでなく、嗅周皮質、内嗅皮質および海馬傍回等の役割も重視されてきた。本研究では、嗅周皮質に限局された脳硬塞のある患者に、種々の神経心理学的精査を行ない、その病変がもたらした神経心理学的機能障害を検討し、嗅周皮質の役割について考察することを目的とした。当該患者が臨床的に安定した病態を示してから、脳磁気共鳴画像により、病巣の同定を行なったころ、左の嗅周皮質に病巣が認められた。標準化された神経心理学的検査を行なったところ、簡易精神機能スケール(MMSE)では問題を認めず、知能(WAIS-R)は平均水準であった。失語、失行、失認に関する検討でも問題は認められなかった。ウエクスラー記憶尺度(WMS-R)では、全体としての記憶指数は平均的であった。しかし、その下位検査のプロセス分析を行なったところ、有関連単語ではなく、無関連単語の対連合記憶学習のみ、困難であることが示された。さらに、さまざまな対連合記憶学習課題(図形と図形の対、色と色の対、図形と色の対、単語と色の対、単語と単語の対)を施行して、精査を行なったところ、言語性および非言語性課題においてともに、無関連の対連合記憶学習が困難であることが示された。また、言語課題においては、提示によるモダリテイの差異について検討したところ、聴覚的な提示と視覚的な提示で異ならず、いずれも、無関連の対連合記憶学習のみが困難であることが示された。これらの結果から、本症例は選択的に無関連対連合記憶学習の障害をきたしていることが明らかとなった。このことは、嗅周皮質が、新しい刺激と刺激との関連の記憶の形成に関わることを示唆している。嗅周皮質はモダリテイにかかわらず、記憶過程で、新しい連合形成と検索に重要な役割を果たしているのかもしれない。
  • 永原 直子, 奥村 美由紀, 伊藤 恵美, 八田 武志
    2004 年 2 巻 1 号 p. 1_9-1_13
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, independent and interactive effects of alcohol drinking and smoking on the function of frontal lobe in middle- and elderly-Japanese community dwellers were examined. The participants were 487 health individuals aged 40 to 86 years old. The letter fluency test to measures verbal executive function, and the D-CAT to measures information processing speed and sustain of attention were used as the measures of cognitive function. Analyses including age and years of education as covariates indicated that the intensity of drinking tended to influence on information processing speed, that is, light to moderate drinkers showed good performance in comparison with abstainers or heavy drinkers. The intensity of smoking also made a significant difference on the results of the letter fluency test, and light smokers showed a higher-level performance compared with other groups.
  • 伊藤 保弘, 永原 直子, 八田 武志
    2004 年 2 巻 1 号 p. 1_15-1_21
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的は暗算(加算、減算、乗算)における記憶検索及び量的操作処理の役割について検討することであった。暗算(加算、減算、乗算)を一次課題、母音判断課題及び方向判断課題を二次課題とする2重課題手続きが用いられた。母音判断課題は記憶検索処理、方向判断課題は量的操作処理をそれぞれ干渉すると考えられる。実験の結果、乗算においては方向判断課題より母音判断課題の方が干渉効果が大きいこと、一方、加算においては母音判断課題より方向判断課題の方が干渉効果が大きいことが明らかになった。減算では母音判断課題と方向判断課題の干渉効果の間に差が見られなかった。これらの結果は、乗算においては記憶検索処理が、加算においては量的操作処理が重要であることを示唆している。また、減算においては記憶検索処理及び量的操作処理の両方がなされている可能性がある。
  • 思考課題との関連性
    三宮 真智子
    2004 年 2 巻 1 号 p. 1_23-1_30
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study investigated the effect of backchannel utterances as a strategy to facilitate idea-generation when a listener was copresent with a speaker who was engaged in divergent thinking. Twenty-four female undergraduate students participated in the main experiment which used a think-aloud method. Independent variables were frequency of backchannel utterances from listeners, and the task category of divergent thinking ( prediction and resolution ). Dependent variables are the number of ideas generated , speaking time, motivation of speakers, and speakers' cognition of listeners' interest in, agreement with, and praise of speakers' ideas. The main results of 2 x 2 ( frequency of backchannel utterances x task category ) ANOVAs were as follows: (1)The main effect of backchannel utterances was significant in all the dependent variables. (2)The interaction between the two factors was significant only in the number of ideas generated, that is, the effect of backchannel utterances was larger in the prediction task. An additional experiment was conducted to obtain a baseline of the number of ideas generated. Twelve female undergraduates engaged in the same tasks in the main experiment without listeners. The performance level was close to that of the low frequency condition. This result eliminated the possibility that low frequency of backchannel utterances inhibited idea-generation. The present findings showed the effectiveness of backchannel utterances as a strategy for facilitating idea-generation. The interaction of backchannel utterances and the task category was interpreted in terms of the possibility that the two kinds of tasks had different thinking processes. Through the fact that the interaction was found only in idea-generation, it was suggested that backchannel utterances had two influencing pathways; one was facilitating positive social cognition and motivation which led to speaking more, and the other was activating idea-generation itself.
  • 主婦を対象とした分析
    唐沢 かおり, 八田 武志, 高橋 晋也, 古賀 一男, 久野 覚, 原田 昌幸, 大森 雄一, 豊沢 純子, 山岡 洋
    2004 年 2 巻 1 号 p. 1_31-1_35
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examined the effects of need for "richness in life" on the need for residential environment. Two-hundred and fifty house wives participated in the study and answered the questions to assess the important conditions for enabling "richness in life" and requirement for residential environment to enable the richness in life. A factor analysis for the enabling conditions of richness revealed the seven-factor structure (richness in family relationship and well-being, abundance of material resource, stability and prosperity of work, good interpersonal relations, luxury, and fashionable life style), thus suggested the complexity of the conception for richness. Furthermore, a structural equation analysis revealed that the factors representing the materialistic aspect of richness increase the need for exterior and amplitude of the housing, whereas the factors representing the interpersonal aspect of richness increase the need for the conditions of residential locations. Discussion argued that future studies should include the variables to account for the way people actualize the psychological need for "richness in life" by adopting certain requirements in residential environment.
  • 川田 稔
    2004 年 2 巻 1 号 p. 1_37-1_49
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    A series of political arguments during negotiation and ratification process of the London Naval Treaty of 1930 was one of the most serious domestic political situations in modern Japan within the Cabinet, the Foreign Ministry, the Navy, the political parties such as Minseito and Seiyukai, the Privy Council, the Kizoku-in, the Army and civilian right wingers. The London treaty fight deeply affected the fate of Japan. This study examines the policy argument over the treaty, focusing on Prime Minister Hamaguchi who was a main player to press for the treaty. It has been pointed out that Hamaguchi was moved by budgetary concerns but those who were against ratification of the treaty like Admiral Kato Kanji, were opposed him from military point of view. My interpretation, however, is that there are other significant factors: Hamaguchi's and Kato's argument over how Japanese policy toward the United States and China should be, or the future of Japan should be as a member of international community. Hamaguchi and his opponents' ideas were so different, and that was one of the reasons for their serious conflict. After all the political argument within Japan, it can be said Japan's new state system operated by political parties including the Navy, the Army, and Privy Council was eventually working under the Hamaguchi Cabinet. At the same time, ratification of the London Naval Treaty of 1930 made it possible for Japan to become one of the leading countries in international society, along with the United States and Britain.
  • 岩原 昭彦, 川上 綾子, 八田 武志
    2004 年 2 巻 1 号 p. 1_51-1_56
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    The awareness structures towards lifelong learning organized for the elderly people by the local governments were investigated. According to the radical changes in modern Japanese society, the needs of lifelong education have increased among Japanese elderly people. By the political advises, almost local governments, higher educational organizations have offered various kinds of external schools or classes for community dwellers. However, far less than half population has joined to these external schools and classes. Present study was aimed to investigate the possible reasons and factors why community dwellers do not participate in lifelong education schools and classes. Questionnaires consisted of the items which relates to the reason of not to participate, self-efficacy levels and intention of participation of social events were give to 133 community dwellers in satellite city of Osaka. The results showed that levels of self-efficacy of community dwellers strongly correlate to the levels of participation, and some of high self-efficacy people feel that they have less times and high financial cost make them difficult to participate. The results also showed the importance to analyze psychological factors why community dwellers participate and not participate in the events organized by the local government.
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