人間環境学研究
Online ISSN : 1883-7611
Print ISSN : 1348-5253
ISSN-L : 1348-5253
6 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
論文
  • 川田 稔
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_1-1_21
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Nagata Tetsuzan is known as one of the leading figures of the Imperial Army after the Manchurian incident. However, the full- scale research on him has not been done yet. This paper, therefore, as part of the research on the relations between Nagata and the Imperial Army, explores Nagata's action based on his vision and policies during the Manchurian incident. In 1929, just before the incident, Nagata gathered elite army officers and organized a group called "Isseki-kai." With the power of the group, Nagata influenced the central headquarters to cause Manchurian incident. Furthermore, he drove for the national reconstruction led by the Army. The background to his action was his own perspective on "total war."
  • 林 祐司
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_23-1_33
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The youth labor problem is very serious in modern Japan. This paper examines the youth employment and unemployment policy of the Japanese government during the Heisei Recession. During the Heisei Recession, the youth unemployment rate rose heavily and the presence of young people called "freeters" (people who prefer not to take regular jobs) and NEET (Not in Education, Employment, or Training) increased. This paper's purpose is to show the characteristics of the policies during this time and to discover the frontier of employment policy. This paper uses empirical evidences from the documents of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW), the Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy, and the Strategy Council to Foster a Spirit of Independence and Challenge in Youth. First, this paper explores the implications of the Human Capability Strategy (Ningenryoku Senryaku), which the government believes empowers young people. The government, which depends on the Human Capability Strategy, executes policies to improve individual vocational views and capabilities and to dissolve mismatches in labor markets. However, this paper shows an alternative strategy to match young people and employers through various social networks. Theoretically, these two strategies are not contradictory to each other. Second, this paper uses the MHLW documents to analyze the youth employment and unemployment policies during the Heisei Recession. Three characteristic concerns on policies are revealed by this analysis: (1) Prior to fiscal year 2002, the government prepared policies to foster the vocational views of students and provide a placement service for students and "freeters." (2) Since fiscal year 2003, when the Human Capability Strategy appeared in the documents of the Japanese government, the policy to cultivate vocational views was adopted for both students and "freeters." (3) However, youth employment and unemployment policies lack in matching young people and employers through social networks. Finally, this paper insists that the frontier of the youth policy is to make use of social networks.
  • 寺前 桜, 唐沢 穣
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_35-1_41
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study examined how people explain actions performed by groups and individual members. The study specifically tested whether the presence of an executive function in groups to make decisions would affect the contents of behavior explanations. Undergraduate students (n = 70) read a scenario which described a wrong-doing either by a group member or by the entire group. We hypothesized that an undesirable act by a group with an executive function would be likely to elicit explanations based on "reasons" (e.g, intentions, beliefs and desires), whereas an act by a group without such a function would be explained by background factors called "causal history of reason" (e.g., group traits, situational factors). To analyze open-ended "why" explanations for the incident, we developed a coding scheme, which was the first attempt to be used for responses in Japanese. The results demonstrated the construct validity of the coding system. More important, content analyses indicated that our predictions were supported concerning types of explanations for acts by a group. As for explanations for individuals' acts, however, an unexpected pattern was found. Even an act by an individual member was more likely to generate reason-based explanations as long as the group was equipped with an executive function. Characteristics of behavioral explanations that are potentially unique to group actors and potential influence of cultural bases for group perception are discussed.
  • 神山 智美
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_43-1_49
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This essay is to interpret and to add some comments for the Legal Case of Repeal Request (Judgment of the Supreme Court on Oct. 09. 2007). On this case, Plaintiff, the students over 20years old, who go disabled persons, insisted that the National Pension Law was illegal and claimed that Disability Pension Incompetent Ruling for them should be repealed. First, the HIROSHIMA District Court judged the National Pension law was unconstitutional legislation and accepted a part of asserting plaintiffs' rights to receive state compensation (on Mar. 3rd. 2005). Later, the HIROSHIMA High Court rejected the former judgment and give decision that the National Pension Law was not necessarily unconstitutional legislation and state compensation does not needed (on Feb. 22. 2006). Finally the Supreme Court upheld the High Court judgment (on Oct. 09. 2007). I compared this Repeal Request judgment to other judgments and stated that the judge should be accepted a part of plaintiffs' claim because of the National Pension Law's unconstitutional.
  • 杉村 智子
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_51-1_58
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的は、複数の人物が登場する複雑なイベントを目撃した際の、4歳児と6歳児の記憶能力を検討することであった。実験参加者は、2名の主要人物と2名の周辺人物が登場するイベントを目撃した約1ヶ月後に、イベントの内容、周辺人物の存在、登場人物の顔再認、背の高さの見積もりに関する記憶テストをうけた。その結果、6歳児の方が4歳児よりもイベントの内容と人物の顔に関する記憶は優れていた。しかし、両者共に周辺人物の存在を思い出すことが困難であり、また背の高さの見積もりについては信頼性が低かった。これらの結果を注意能力の発達等の観点から考察した。
  • 池田 肇, 南 繁行, 仁科 辰夫, 大場 好弘, 小沢 昭弥
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_59-1_66
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Lead-acid batteries for SLI (engine starting, lighting, ignition) uses have an average life of 3-4 years. The ITE Yeager Battery Research Institute (Japan) has developed a new chemical (organic polymer) which prevents sulfation of new batteries and recovers deteriorated batteries from sulfation. By using this new ITE Kozawa Activator (an organic polymer is the main chemical), the service life can be extended into 5-10 years and also the lead plate can be reduced by 25-50 %. This means the current SLI batteries can be made smaller and lighter.
  • 高岡 要子, 城 仁士
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_67-1_72
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This interview surveys on "Subjective age" of dankai-generation were done to improve the quality of their welfare services, and the subjective age formation in an individual living environment was considered. The transition patterns of the subjective age were graphed case by case, and classified into seven types in total. From talking about their life history, the subjective age formation resulted from "change in the living environment" such as significant change in their life events and relationships. Through all interview results, "Temporal Landmark" theory by Shum (1998) was used to specify the regulated factors which caused "Self-youth" phenomenon that the subjective age was younger than the calendar age, and to examine how these factors influenced the subjective age formation. In addition, a self-youth mechanism was derived that the dankai- generation was youthful and energetic forever as if a lot of experiences of latter middle-aged people were activated as a landmark, and as if self-youth by landmark formation of the dankai-generation was caught affirmatively. Such a youthful dankai-generation was viewed as "Active senior" with discussion about a self youth mechanism, and a desirable transition model of subjective age to have time by youthful feelings as much as possible was presented at the end.
  • 梁 娜瑛
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_73-1_78
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This research aimed to examine reuse policy of both Japan and Korea based on the investigation of waste management policies and the result of investigation carried out by the Institution of Environment Lifestyle and culture in 2007 to examine reuse policy. According to the investigation, most of the people "Dispose their old clothes" or "Keep them at home". There are about 647 recycle-shops in Japan and we could take questionnaire survey randomly. But, there are not such recycle- shops in Korea. However, according to previous investigations, a stock of un-disposed or the old clothes kept at home are growing in Japan. It is doubtful that the management of waste recycling could solve the waste problem. However, the result of the current study suggests that the reusing old clothes that are in a big stock within the region would have benefit to local economy, and this method of reusing resources could contribute in building cycle-oriented society in both countries.
  • 岡部 曜子, 吉原 英樹, 横田 斉司
    2008 年 6 巻 1 号 p. 1_79-1_87
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/06/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    本論は、ERP(統合業務パッケージソフトウェア)に焦点をあてて、情報技術と日本的経営との整合性について考察するものである。ERPは、経営の効率化を目指して、人事、財務、管理会計、生産、調達、在庫、販売などの業務データを統括的に管理する情報システムを構築するためのソフトウエアである。ERPを導入することにより、業務処理コストの削減、リアルタイムでの業務内容の把握、データの一元管理などが可能となる。ERPを導入する日本企業が急増しているが、導入・維持コストに見合うだけの成果が上がらないケースも多い。これは一つには、ERPが経営とくに業務にもたらす影響について日本の経営者が十分に理解していないことに原因がある。ERPとは本来、欧米企業のベストプラクティスをモデルとした汎用ソフトであり、業務をグローバル標準化するものである。一方、日本的経営の大きな特徴は、ヒトや情報などの経営資源が長期にわたって企業内に蓄積され、生産などの業務が企業独自のものとして洗練され、その企業独自的な業務が競争優位の源泉となっている点にある。このように、日本的経営とERPの基本的思想(業務の標準化)とは相反するのである。世界中でERPの導入が進む中、日本企業は、ERPによる経営のグローバル標準化を目指すべきか、あるいは日本的経営のメリットを保持すべきかの難しい選択に迫られている。実際、過去数年間に製薬、電気、石油等の企業で国際的なM & Aが行われているが、合併を行う企業同士は同一のERPシステムを使い、業務が標準化されていることが多い。これらの企業では、競争優位の決定要因として、競争力のある製品を生み出す製品開発力が決定的に重要であり、生産・販売などの業務の効率性はあまり重要でない。したがって、製品開発には汎用的なERPを導入せずに自社独自的な情報システムを開発して使うが、競争力の差別的・決定的な要因でない業務には企業独自的な業務システムを構築せずにERPを導入している。ERPによってシステムのコスト削減を図りながらグローバル標準経営をおし進め、国際競争力を高めるという戦略を取っているのである。経営者は、ERPの基本的思想を理解し、自らの企業の経営のあり方と適合するかどうかを慎重に検討すべきである。本論では、統計データ、インタビュー調査、関連文献などにもとづき、ERPと日本的経営の特徴を示した上で相互の整合性を議論し、日本企業におけるERPの活用の現状を明らかにしながら、日本企業に適合的なERPとはどのようなものかを提案する。ERPを取り上げた従来の研究は、情報システム論における議論がほとんどであり、日本企業の経営や組織との関連付けで議論した研究はほとんど存在しない。このような意味において本研究は今日的意義が大きいと考える。
feedback
Top