This study aims to specify the essential nature of a child-friendly educational environment through an analysis of the Children's Houses for 3- to 6-year-old children planned by Maria Montessori whose philosophy and method have spread all over the world. Based on her theory of how children grow and develop, Montessori designed an educational method along with a unique physical environment in which to put it into practice. In the present study, an intensive content analysis of 12 Montessori's books, consisting of her own writings and dictations of her own lectures, was conducted and revealed: (1) Montessori's grand theory of child development governed her educational method and its physical environment which was essentially planned to evoke and support children's competence and autonomy, (2) The 8 properties of the physical environment, which were indispensable to the education of young children, were identified, e.g., the environment must (a) be attuned to children's body size and their physical and cognitive abilities; (b) be responsive to children's behavior; and (c) activate children's spontaneous activities, (3) These properties were surely embodied in the physical environment in all of the Montessori Children's Houses. What we can learn from Montessori, now and for the future, is discussed.
At the August 2 1990, the Gulf crisis broke out. The United States was seeking the cooperation of the SDF dispatch and funding cooperation in Japan. The Government of Japan was refused dispatch of Self-Defense Forces from the context of Article 9 and accepted other support including financial supports. However, the US Congress and the US media criticized reluctant the correspondence of the Japanese government. Japanese government considered personnel support without using Self-Defense Forces, but Japanese government could not be realized. As a result, Japanese response after the Gulf crisis is described as "Gulf trauma". The main factors that led to this situation was in Japan's political situation at the time. At the time, Liberal Democratic Party was not a majority in the House of Councilors. Therefore, Japanese government needed to assistance by opposition party like Socialist party or Komeito. However, the opposition was reluctant to support to the multinational force. Japanese government was difficult to appeal actively support measures at home and abroad by paying mind for opposition party. In addition, there was also bad timing such as to announce support measures after the additional burden resolution voting against Japan in the US Congress, Japan for the Gulf crisis from the United States Congress and the media, are able to receive it and are taking a passive response, it is they've decided that criticism.
A number of studies have demonstrated that congruency effect observed by stimulus-response compatibility paradigm depends on proportion congruency (PC) in an experimental block (e.g., Gratton, Coles, and Donchin, 1992). More specifically, the congruency effect becomes larger in high PC block in which the congruent trials appear frequently (e.g., 75 %) than that in low PC block (e.g., 25 %), which is named Proportion Congruency (PC) effect. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the generality of PC effect between two presentation locations (close/far). We gave 16 university students the spatial-Stroop task which required to identify a Kanji stimulus ("UE" or "SHITA" means "up" or "down" respectively.) which was presented at one of four possible locations (two upper and two lower positions across the fixation point). We focused on the Stroop-like effect (congruency effect) which denotes the performance deterioration in the incongruent trials in which the identity of the target ("up" or "down" is incompatible with the presentation location (upper or lower from a fixation), compared with the congruent trials. Important manipulation was the PC at the close/far locations from a fixation point. For example, PC at the close locations was manipulated with 75 % or 25 % (the varied PC location), whereas PC at the far locations kept 50 % (the constant PC location). The results showed that the modulation of congruency effects associated with block-wise PC (75 %/25 %), i.e., PC effect, appeared in the constant PC location as well as in the varied PC location, suggesting that the modulation of congruency effect according to PC generalizes between the two different locations when the stimuli are common between them.
Regulation of the use of hazardous chemical substances is one of the principal means of controlling human or environmental exposure to such substances. In Japan, although the Act on the Evaluation of Chemical Substances and Regulation of Their Manufacture, etc. (Kagakubusshitsu No Shinsa Oyobi Seizoutou No Kisei Ni Kansuru Houritsu, or Kashinho, in Japanese) provides measures for regulating the manufacture and import of industrial chemicals, it provides little for regulating the use of these chemicals. It does have a mechanism to do so, but the number of the substances it covers is limited to those that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT), and it accounts for only 30 substances. Regarding the U.S. environmental law, measures on chemical use control can be found in the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The "significant new use" regulation of existing chemical substances was embodied in the original act enacted in 1976, and has been regulating a new use that is considered to change the type or extent of exposure of human beings or the environment to chemical substances. This note attempts to provide a detailed analysis of the chemical use regulation in the U.S., focusing on "significant new use" regulation in the TSCA. It would provide helpful tips for the discussion on the forthcoming amendment of chemical risk management laws in Japan.
Past cases were reviewed to examine the courts' criteria for determining child custody. The criteria reviewed included maintenance of current living circumstances and mother's prioritization of their children, both of which are problematic in some ways. Through this review, I was unable to determine the optimal criteria for determining custody. This may be because the method currently employed involves direct interviews with parents and has little scientific objectivity. I therefore attempted to apply family systems theory as a means to determine custody. Specifically, I employed the psychological test, the Family System Test, as a method to compare family relations. I suggest that in law suits to determine custody, it is necessary to consider the meetings that occur between the non-custodial parent and child after the divorce is granted.
The purpose of this study was to examine a causal model about vocational motives of college students and workers. The model assumes that behavioral inhibition/activation systems (BIS/BAS) affects vocational motives (exploratory/growth/human/status motivation) via innate/acquired resilience. We conducted online survey and analyzed data from 185 college students and 184 workers. The results showed that BIS negatively influenced resilience and growth motivation, while BAS positively influence resilience, exploratory, status and growth motivation. Innate resilience positively affected all four vocal motivations, and acquired resilience positively affected human motivation. The results implied behavioral activation and resilience are important for keeping vocational motives. We also examined effects of BIS/BAS, resilience and vocational motives on "fundamental competencies for working person".
The aim of this study was to examine whether vocational fitness to care-giving works have influence on mental and physical health in full-time care-giving workers. One hundred ninety two full-time care-giving workers were asked to check (1): Vocational Readiness Test, related to vocational preference and (2) General Health Questionnaire-12, included the factors of depression and social activity. We obtained the three results. First was that level of health in care-giving workers were lower than average. Second was that the general health score in low vocational preference group was worse than that in high vocational preference group, especially in social activity. Third was that the second results was prevalent among men. These results supported that the vocational fitness to care-giving works had influence on both mental and physical health in full-time care-giving workers.