人間環境学研究
Online ISSN : 1883-7611
Print ISSN : 1348-5253
ISSN-L : 1348-5253
13 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
原著
  • 長尾 征洋, 杉本 拓弥, 森永 泰彦, 佐野 充
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 1-12
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    製品生産現場における生産スケジュールの定式化として、フレキシブルジョブスケジューリング問題が研究の対象とされている。各ジョブショップにリソースとして製品(群)・機械・オペレータが割り当てられる研究例は多いが、段取り作業および段取り従事者に注目した研究は見られない。多品種少量生産の現場では、段取り作業者資源の効率的な配分が生産性の向上につながる。一方、人的な資源であるために、従事者の満足度は軽視できない。本研究では、段取り作業者を取り入れたフレキシブルジョブショップ問題を取り上げ、多様性指向型多目的遺伝的アルゴリズムによる解法を提案する。納期遅れ指数と段取り作業者の負荷指数を評価関数とすることで、顧客と作業従事者の視点に立った最適化が可能になった。提案手法により短時間で生産スケジュールを作成することができ、実生産データを用いた場合においても、適用可能なスケジュールを導出することができた。
  • 塚本 早織, 唐沢 穣
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 13-20
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    自分とは反対の性格特性を持つ他者が,異なる民族の一員であった場合,人はその性格の違いを民族性が原因であるかのように解釈する場合がある。日常生活においてみられるこのような過度な一般化は、民族に関する偏ったステレオタイプを形成する一因となる。本研究は、個人の特徴に関する知識が、カテゴリーに関する知識へと一般化される状況と、それに影響を与える個人差要因に着目した実証的研究を行った。個人差要因として、心理的本質主義信念を測定し、民族カテゴリーに行動や認知の原因となる本質的因子の存在を錯覚しやすい人ほど、他民族他者と自身の違いを民族性の違いとして一般化する傾向が強いと予測した。実験参加者は全て日本人学生であったが、実験参加のパートナーという名目で「留学生」(実験1ではインドネシア国籍、実験2では中国国籍)あるいは「日本人」の実験協力者と同時に実験に参加した。実験では、参加者および実験協力者に対して認知傾向を調べるテストを行い、テスト後に偽のフィードバックを与えた。フィードバックとして、パートナー間にみられる認知傾向の類似性(同じ・異なる)を操作した。その結果、パートナー間の類似性に関する情報を日本人および留学生全般に一般化する程度は、パートナーの国籍とフィードバックの類似性の組み合わせによって異なることが明らかとなった。具体的には、留学生パートナーとの間に認知傾向の違いが告げられた参加者において、その違いを日本人および留学生カテゴリーに一般化し、民族間の差異を過度に推測する傾向がみられた。同様の一般化傾向は、日本人パートナーと同じ認知傾向があると告げられた参加者にもみられた。しかし、留学生との違いを民族間の差異に一般化した前者の場合のみ、その程度が心理的本質主義信念の強さと関連していることが明らかになった。本研究により、異なる民族他者との交流で得られる些細な情報からも、民族に関するステレオタイプが形成される可能性が示唆され、それには民族カテゴリーに関する信念の個人差が影響を与えることが明らかとなった。
  • 高橋 節子
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 21-36
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to specify the essential nature of a child-friendly educational environment through an analysis of the Children's Houses for 3- to 6-year-old children planned by Maria Montessori whose philosophy and method have spread all over the world. Based on her theory of how children grow and develop, Montessori designed an educational method along with a unique physical environment in which to put it into practice. In the present study, an intensive content analysis of 12 Montessori's books, consisting of her own writings and dictations of her own lectures, was conducted and revealed: (1) Montessori's grand theory of child development governed her educational method and its physical environment which was essentially planned to evoke and support children's competence and autonomy, (2) The 8 properties of the physical environment, which were indispensable to the education of young children, were identified, e.g., the environment must (a) be attuned to children's body size and their physical and cognitive abilities; (b) be responsive to children's behavior; and (c) activate children's spontaneous activities, (3) These properties were surely embodied in the physical environment in all of the Montessori Children's Houses. What we can learn from Montessori, now and for the future, is discussed.
  • 加藤 博章
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 37-44
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    At the August 2 1990, the Gulf crisis broke out. The United States was seeking the cooperation of the SDF dispatch and funding cooperation in Japan. The Government of Japan was refused dispatch of Self-Defense Forces from the context of Article 9 and accepted other support including financial supports. However, the US Congress and the US media criticized reluctant the correspondence of the Japanese government. Japanese government considered personnel support without using Self-Defense Forces, but Japanese government could not be realized. As a result, Japanese response after the Gulf crisis is described as "Gulf trauma". The main factors that led to this situation was in Japan's political situation at the time. At the time, Liberal Democratic Party was not a majority in the House of Councilors. Therefore, Japanese government needed to assistance by opposition party like Socialist party or Komeito. However, the opposition was reluctant to support to the multinational force. Japanese government was difficult to appeal actively support measures at home and abroad by paying mind for opposition party. In addition, there was also bad timing such as to announce support measures after the additional burden resolution voting against Japan in the US Congress, Japan for the Gulf crisis from the United States Congress and the media, are able to receive it and are taking a passive response, it is they've decided that criticism.
  • 渡辺 友里菜, 吉崎 一人
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 45-49
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A number of studies have demonstrated that congruency effect observed by stimulus-response compatibility paradigm depends on proportion congruency (PC) in an experimental block (e.g., Gratton, Coles, and Donchin, 1992). More specifically, the congruency effect becomes larger in high PC block in which the congruent trials appear frequently (e.g., 75 %) than that in low PC block (e.g., 25 %), which is named Proportion Congruency (PC) effect. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the generality of PC effect between two presentation locations (close/far). We gave 16 university students the spatial-Stroop task which required to identify a Kanji stimulus ("UE" or "SHITA" means "up" or "down" respectively.) which was presented at one of four possible locations (two upper and two lower positions across the fixation point). We focused on the Stroop-like effect (congruency effect) which denotes the performance deterioration in the incongruent trials in which the identity of the target ("up" or "down" is incompatible with the presentation location (upper or lower from a fixation), compared with the congruent trials. Important manipulation was the PC at the close/far locations from a fixation point. For example, PC at the close locations was manipulated with 75 % or 25 % (the varied PC location), whereas PC at the far locations kept 50 % (the constant PC location). The results showed that the modulation of congruency effects associated with block-wise PC (75 %/25 %), i.e., PC effect, appeared in the constant PC location as well as in the varied PC location, suggesting that the modulation of congruency effect according to PC generalizes between the two different locations when the stimuli are common between them.
  • 赤渕 芳宏
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 51-69
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Regulation of the use of hazardous chemical substances is one of the principal means of controlling human or environmental exposure to such substances. In Japan, although the Act on the Evaluation of Chemical Substances and Regulation of Their Manufacture, etc. (Kagakubusshitsu No Shinsa Oyobi Seizoutou No Kisei Ni Kansuru Houritsu, or Kashinho, in Japanese) provides measures for regulating the manufacture and import of industrial chemicals, it provides little for regulating the use of these chemicals. It does have a mechanism to do so, but the number of the substances it covers is limited to those that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT), and it accounts for only 30 substances. Regarding the U.S. environmental law, measures on chemical use control can be found in the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The "significant new use" regulation of existing chemical substances was embodied in the original act enacted in 1976, and has been regulating a new use that is considered to change the type or extent of exposure of human beings or the environment to chemical substances. This note attempts to provide a detailed analysis of the chemical use regulation in the U.S., focusing on "significant new use" regulation in the TSCA. It would provide helpful tips for the discussion on the forthcoming amendment of chemical risk management laws in Japan.
  • 甲斐田 直子
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 71-75
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    場所愛着は環境配慮行動を促進することが知られているが、異なる場所スケールに対するこれらの関係は検討されていない。本研究は、住区と市に対する愛着の相対的な感覚差が環境配慮行動の従事度合いに与える影響について、つくば市在住成人男女を対象とする質問紙調査により検討した(n = 277)。t検定の結果、回答者の住区および市に対する愛着は市への愛着の方が高いことがみとめられた。さらに場所愛着の相対的感覚差別に回答者を群分けし、10種類の環境配慮行動ごとに行動従事の程度を比較した結果、住区規模での環境改善に関係すると考えられる自動車利用抑制および節水について住区愛着選好群の行動従事度が市愛着選好群より有意に高いことがみとめられた。また、地球環境問題と関係すると考えられる省エネルギー製品購入について、場所愛着選好なし群が住区もしくは市愛着選好群よりも程度が高いことが示された。このことから、場所愛着と環境配慮行動との間には、場所スケールの観点から合理的な関係性があることが示唆される。
  • 相谷 登
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 77-85
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Past cases were reviewed to examine the courts' criteria for determining child custody. The criteria reviewed included maintenance of current living circumstances and mother's prioritization of their children, both of which are problematic in some ways. Through this review, I was unable to determine the optimal criteria for determining custody. This may be because the method currently employed involves direct interviews with parents and has little scientific objectivity. I therefore attempted to apply family systems theory as a means to determine custody. Specifically, I employed the psychological test, the Family System Test, as a method to compare family relations. I suggest that in law suits to determine custody, it is necessary to consider the meetings that occur between the non-custodial parent and child after the divorce is granted.
  • 中村 紘子, 川口 潤
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 87-94
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to examine a causal model about vocational motives of college students and workers. The model assumes that behavioral inhibition/activation systems (BIS/BAS) affects vocational motives (exploratory/growth/human/status motivation) via innate/acquired resilience. We conducted online survey and analyzed data from 185 college students and 184 workers. The results showed that BIS negatively influenced resilience and growth motivation, while BAS positively influence resilience, exploratory, status and growth motivation. Innate resilience positively affected all four vocal motivations, and acquired resilience positively affected human motivation. The results implied behavioral activation and resilience are important for keeping vocational motives. We also examined effects of BIS/BAS, resilience and vocational motives on "fundamental competencies for working person".
  • 永原 直子, 堀田 千絵
    2015 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 95-99
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study was to examine whether vocational fitness to care-giving works have influence on mental and physical health in full-time care-giving workers. One hundred ninety two full-time care-giving workers were asked to check (1): Vocational Readiness Test, related to vocational preference and (2) General Health Questionnaire-12, included the factors of depression and social activity. We obtained the three results. First was that level of health in care-giving workers were lower than average. Second was that the general health score in low vocational preference group was worse than that in high vocational preference group, especially in social activity. Third was that the second results was prevalent among men. These results supported that the vocational fitness to care-giving works had influence on both mental and physical health in full-time care-giving workers.
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