The relationship between prefrontal cortex and cerebro-cerebeller functions in normal healthy elderly people was examined. The function of the prefrontal cortex was measured by means of a letter fluency test and D-CAT (test for the assessment of attention). The postural tremor measured by the stabilometer was employed as the indication of cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit functions. The results of D-CAT and letter fluency test performances of the upper group who showed higher scores than the mean of the norm of the stabilometer index was compared with those of the lower group. These comparisons showed significant differences in the indices of D-CAT and letter fluency test. The results of the behavioral measures suggested a mutual relationship between prefrontal cortex and cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit functions. Based on these findings, future tasks required for cognitive psychologists were proposed.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the residence as a factor in the consciousness of aging. Through two surveys on the aging consciousness of two generations (early 60's and college students), the home residence appears as a significant factor for the evaluation of aging by early 60's cohort, and the urban residence appears as a significant factor for the evaluation of aging by college students. Other two findings through surveys are as follows. (1) Hope level of early 60's cohort is not low comparing to college students, and the acceptance to the past events of early 60's cohort seems more positive than that of college student group. So, the future time perspective of early 60's cohort is different from typical pattern of elders (over 65 years old). (2) In analyzing the life image drawings by line or curve (including by graph), 3 typologies emerged: wave type, upwards type, and trajectory type. Those who draw life images in upwards type evaluate aging positively, and those who draw life images in trajectory type evaluate aging negatively.
This paper reviewed the samurai's thought, the essential part in Tsuda's study of Japan's esprit. The author tried to comprehend one aspect of Tsuda's study of the future of Japan's esprit by analyzing the relationship between the samurai's thought and Japan's esprit. Tsuda criticized Nitobe Inazo's and Inoue Tetsuziro's widely accepted arguments about the samurai's thought that held that Bushido was the samurai's moral code that also became the moral standard for Japan's masses. Bushido incorporated Buddhism, Shintoism and Confucianism. Loyalty and patriotism also played an important role in Bushido. In contrast to the thoughts on Bushido advanced by these two men, Tsuda held that the samurai's thought originated from his way of life. This thought began in the Gen-Pei Period, developed in the Warring State Period, and faded in the Edo Period. The samurai's thought consisted of two parts. First, it was related to the relationship between the master and the vassal. Tsuda insisted that this relation was not the loyalty of the vassal to the master, but rather a kind of exchange of service and reward between them. Second, courage, honor, independence, and sympathy were not generated through religious practices but through participation in battles. As a fighter, the samurai behaved against the human's desire for survival. Moreover, it was difficult to establish a stable society based on the relationship between the master and the vassal. Therefore, the samurai's thought could not guide Japan's esprit.
Yoshino Sakuzo is not only the most important leading thinker in Taisyo Democracy, but also well known as a specialist on Sino-Japan relationship, who wrote many about China from Xinhai Revolution to the Manchurian Incident. This paper will discuss the views of Yoshino Sakuzo regarding China, especially Japan's interests in China during the Paris Peace Conference, the Washington Conference, and the nationalist revolution. Besides, to make clear the significance of Yoshino's views regarding China in the history of Sino-Japan relationship this paper will also compare Yoshino's opinions about Sino-Japan relationship before the Manchurian Incident with Wang Zhengting's, the Minister of Foreign Affairs in China.
This paper deals with the East Asia policy by Britain in 1928. The international relation in East Asia during 1928 had made a tension over Manchuria between Japan and China. How Britain had considered, and corresponded it is considered in this study. When The Tsinan Incident had been happened, Britain first had showed a sympathetic attitude to Japan, but later showed a critical opinion to the Manchurian Policy of Japan. However, Japan requested Britain's cooperation with Japan afterwards. When negotiating over the customs autonomy of China, where the confrontation between Japan and China had been going on, Britain understood for cooperation with Japan to some degree, and executed a policy to advance well the negotiation between Japan and China over the customs autonomy. The purpose of this policy was to maintain The Maritime Customs. It was necessary for The Maritime Customs maintenance that the negotiation of Japan and China have advanced well under the most-favored-nation status.