人間環境学研究
Online ISSN : 1883-7611
Print ISSN : 1348-5253
ISSN-L : 1348-5253
14 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
原著
  • 廃棄物処分場建設の受容場面を題材として
    尾花 恭介, 藤井 聡
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 3-8
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examined the difference of information seeking behaviour depending on situations when people judge acceptance of a public project. It was confirmed by a questionnaire experiment. Waste dump construction was used as a theme, and local referendum and opinion survey by interview at street corner as the situations were used in the experiment. It was expected that internal information seeking preceded external information seeking, and people sought external information more in local referendum situation than in opinion survey situation. The results supported our expectation. It showed that people tended to behave differently in seeking information depending on their situation. Almost all participants answered that they sought internal information in both of the situations, however, they sought external information more in the local referendum situation than opinion survey situation. Furthermore, methods to provide a project's information from authorities based on the results are discussed.
  • 日本の裁判員制度に対する市民の態度に関する実証的研究
    谷辺 哲史, 白岩 祐子, 唐沢 かおり
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 9-16
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    裁判員制度は市民の司法参加の一つとして2009年に導入された制度である。しかし、この制度は「市民参加は理性的な意思決定の妨げになる」「裁判員は被害者に同情し、偏った判断をするおそれがある」といった批判を受けていた。本研究では裁判員制度に対する人々の態度の規定因を実証的に検討し、「裁判は感情の影響を受けず理性的に行われるべきだ」という考え(理性的裁判イメージ)を強く持つ人ほど裁判員制度に反対することを示した。人は理性と感情を対立的に捉える素朴な理解の枠組みを持っていることが指摘されているが、本研究はこのような理解の枠組みが司法制度に対する態度に関連することを明らかにした。さらに、「市民の感覚を裁判に反映する」という裁判員制度の導入目的を参加者に教示すると、上述の理性的裁判イメージと裁判員制度への賛否の関連が消失した。この結果は、制度に関する情報を提供することで人々の態度が肯定的に変化する可能性を示している。多くの市民が司法参加に否定的な態度を示している現状を踏まえると、市民の積極的な司法参加を促し、裁判員制度の円滑な運用を実現する上で本研究の知見は重要な意味を持つだろう。最後に、本研究の知見を外国の司法制度に適用できる可能性、および本研究の限界について議論した。
  • 心拍反応による検討
    齋藤 菜月, 安藤 由妃, 大平 英樹
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 17-22
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A social dilemma has been defined as a situation in which (a) each group member receives a higher payoff for defecting than for cooperative behaviors, and (b) all group members receive a lower payoff if they all defect than if they all cooperate (Dawes, 1980). The free-rider problem is associated with this social dilemma. The public goods game (PGG) is a decision-making task simulating the above social dilemma, and a number of previous studies have indicated that introducing punishment increases cooperation in the PGG. Although many studies have indicated that physiological responses affected by participants' behaviors when performing punishment-related tasks, this association has not been investigated to date in relation to PGG. Therefore, we investigated physiological responses in the PGG to elucidate the association between physiological responses and choices in the PGG. Participants performed both an ordinary PGG and a PGG that included probabilistic punishment. Heart rate (HR) responses were compared when participants contributed and did not contribute in the two types of PGGs. Results indicated that when others' choices were presented in the ordinary PGG, peak HR acceleration was higher after participants choose a non-cooperative behavior than a cooperative behavior, whereas when others' choices were presented in PGG with punishment, HR decelerated after participants choose a non-cooperative behavior than a cooperative behavior. These results suggest that cooperative behaviors in PGG with punishment are associated with punishment given to others, whereas cooperative behaviors in the PGG without punishment are associated with larger rewards without costs. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between cooperative behaviors and physiological responses associated with social dilemmas.
  • 武野 全恵, 北神 慎司
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 23-28
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A retrospective attention is known that it can enhance an accuracy of only one item within visual working memory, however, it is not clear whether this attention can enhance that of multiple items or not. The previous study showed a null effect of retrospective attention to multiple items (i.e., a limitation of retrospective attention). It assumed that the null effect caused an extra effort to maintain multiple split foci or the retrospective attention cannot enhance multiple items. Present study investigated whether the effort to separate the retrospective attention to multiple items decline the effect of the retrospective attention with a probed-recall paradigm which is assumed more sensitive than that of previous study. Experiment 1 showed that there was a large effect size of single cueing, but there was no difference between a control condition and a double-cue condition where participants needed to distribute attention. However, it detected a weak effect size of attention between the both conditions. It suggested that distributing attention generated the extra effort and load. Then in order to lighten this load, we eliminated ISI between memorized items and attentional cues to use the iconic memory in Experiment 2. As compared with the accuracies in Experiment 1, those in Experiment 2 improved except that in double-cue condition. It was not enhanced by reduction of ISI as well as by the distribution of the attention. This suggested that the attentional effect in double-cue condition decreased due to the load to separate the attention. Thus, to distribute retrospective attention imposes the load and effort. Moreover, it limits the retrospective attention.
  • 養護教諭の心理教育的援助サービスを対象として
    林 照子
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 29-40
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    For school nurse teachers as key persons, this study examined several factors to elucidate the relation between psycho-educational services necessary for team support and dynamic assessment of those services. A questionnaire survey was administered to 1,350 randomly selected public elementary schools, junior high schools, and high schools. Based on Feuerstein (1979), items related to support attitudes (mediated learning experience; MLE) and dynamic assessment were collected and selected for questionnaire items such as belief for psychological support, burnout, coordination behavior assessment, workplace culture perception, and team cooperation. As a result, the collection rate was 35.9 % (484), yielding 382 valid responses. The results were subjected to factor analysis, correlation analysis, and then path analysis. Psycho-educational services for school nurse teachers showed positive correlation between dynamic assessment as the subscale of children's cognitive development and that of mediating support attitude ("transcendence" (r = .505, p ‹ .01) and "intentionality" (r = .429, p ‹ .01)). Every subscale of coordination activity showed significantly positive correlation (r = .318 to .43, p ‹ .01). Also, in the structure equation, "cooperation" of the workplace atmosphere had a positive path to "team cooperation," and "intentionality" as the subscale of school nurse teachers's support attitude to dynamic assessment. In turn, "dynamic assessment" had a positive path to "cooperation with professions outside school" as the subscale of coordination activity. The results presented above elucidated the relation between school nurse teachers' psycho-educational services and dynamic assessment. Furthermore, results suggest that, in the structure, the intentionality of mediating support attitudes as a factor for team cooperation supports the viewpoint of dynamic assessment and affects cooperation with professions outside the school.
  • 吉岡 歩, 志和 資朗, 大隅 尚広, 田邊 宏樹
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 41-47
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Psychopathy is constructed with two factors, interpersonal/affective features including callousness, manipulation and lack of remorse or empathy (Primary Psychopathy), and behavioral problems including impulsivity and lack of long-term goal (Secondary Psychopathy). While it is hypothesized that psychopathic traits are related to both dysfunction of frontal lobe and risky decision-making, there are few empirical studies. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two studies employing questionnaires and laboratory experiment. In the first study, we used Primary and Secondary Psychopathy Scale and Frontal Behavioral Inventory to examine the relationship between psychopathic traits and the function of the frontal lobe. In the second study, we used a gambling task to clarify the relationship between psychopathic traits and risky decision-making. In this task, participants decided whether or not to bet their own money or another participant's money in order to increase their own gain or the partner's gain. Results of these studies showed that psychopathic traits were associated with frontal lobe function, and high psychopathic individuals chose risky options more frequently than low psychopathic individuals. In particular, primary psychopathy prompted risky choices when participants could use partner's money, but not use their own money. Taken together, psychopathic individuals seem to be inclined to make selfish decisions, and this tendency might be caused by the dysfunction of frontal lobe.
  • 井関 紗代, 北神 慎司
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 49-54
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    商品を購入する際、その商品を「触る」という行為は、非常に重要な役割を果たしている。その理由の一つとして、ただ商品を触るだけで、自分の所有物ではないにも関わらず、「自分の物であるような感覚」、すなわち「所有感」が生じるからであることがわかっている。しかし、オンラインショップなどの普及に伴い、購買意思決定の際に、商品を触ることができない場面が急増している。先行研究では、実際に商品に触れることができない状況において、目を閉じて商品を「触るイメージ」をするだけで、その商品に対する、所有感が高まることが示されている。本研究では、この触るイメージが所有感を高める効果は、安い商品と高い商品という価格帯の違いに関わらず、一様に生じるのか、また、所有感が高まることにより、購買意図を促進するのか、という点について検証した。その結果、触るイメージが商品の所有感を高める効果は、商品の価格帯の違いに関わらず頑健であることが明らかとなった。また触るイメージは、商品に対する「コントロール感」と所有感を通して、間接的に購買意図を高めることも示された。このことから、市場において、顧客獲得のために、所有感を高めることは有益であり、その方略の一つとして、触るイメージの想起が非常に有効であると考えられる。
  • 内モンゴル・バガエレン・ガチャの共有地管理を事例として
    坂本 剛, 野波 寛, アラムス  , 大友 章司, 田代 豊
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 55-64
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    For the success of community-based natural resource management, it is important that self-governing management organizations approve the legitimacy of rights for the management of a resource. In some resource management cases, it was observed that an organization that did not have authorized institutional legitimacy was in reality still able to manage a natural resource in that region. This study focused on the grassland management of Baga'eren Gacha village in Inner Mongolia, China; moreover, an interview survey was conducted to examine the substance of legitimacy that was approved for the management of the self-governing management organization, "the Village (Gacha) Committee," and the effect of the committee's procedural fairness. These aspects show that villagers regard the common land management's economic value as most important and accept the committee as the legitimate manager based on performance evaluation. Additionally, it is suggested that the effect of procedural fairness is less than that of distributive fairness. Furthermore, we discussed the function of the committee to modulate mismatch values between the administration and the villagers.
  • 山村 麻予, 真下 知子, 三宮 真智子
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 65-74
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to collect data on the situations under which university students feel distressed, and to arrange these situations based on three characteristics. First, as a pilot study, 20 undergraduate university students (average age of 19.45 years, SD = 1.36) responded to the questions "In what kinds of situations do you feel you experience difficulties?" and "What are your troubles in daily life?" by filling out an open questionnaire. As a result, we collected data on 172 situations and they were classified into five categories: human relationship, losing thing, study, private affairs and environment. Second, as the main study, 208 university students (average age of 19.14 years, SD = 3.12) replied to a questionnaire. For each of 42 items selected from the results of the pilot study, the students answered questions about three items: frequency of experiencing troubles, the degree of feeling distressed, and the degree of desire for assistance. Based on factor analysis, we found four factors: interpersonal relations, communication skills, studies and daily routines. The factors also display different characteristics. The students answered under "daily routines" that such occurrences as "I forget my umbrella on rainy days" often occur, but situations such as "I cannot say what I want to say to people" under "communication skills" do not happen too much. The findings suggest that there are various situations in which university students feel distressed in daily life. Undergraduate students have various difficulties, and in addition, the kinds of prosocial behaviours (assistance, helping and so on) that arise are numerous. Previous studies in Japan have conducted research on secondary and tertiary students suffering from mental disorders, but this study focuses on the healthy university students and their school life.
  • ノルウェーとの対比を通じて
    野村 康
    2016 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 75-89
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This is a preliminary discussion on the development and characteristics of anti-whaling activism in Japan with reference to the activism in Norway. Although Japan and Norway are often considered among the greenest countries in the world, both are also known as major whaling nations without strong anti-whaling movements. While there are several important studies on Norway, little attention has been paid to the case of Japan. Drawing on the framing perspective of social movement theory, this article considers how local political conditions have constrained the growth of Japanese anti-whaling activism and shaped its repertoire of activities, which are significantly less radical compared to its international counterparts. The article concludes by showing an agenda for future research about the nature conservation and animal protection movements in Japan, as well as anti-whaling activism itself, by highlighting the importance of a political-cultural perspective in understanding them.
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