本研究の目的はHellige（1987）が提案したメタコントロールパラダイムを利用して、利き手とメタコントロール半球の関係を検討することであった。メタコントロールの概念は、Levy and Trevarthen（1976）が分離脳患者の結果から提案したもので、課題に優位な半球とは別に、課題遂行をコントロールする半球の存在を提案したものである。Hellige（1987）が、この概念を健常者に適用できるようにパラダイムを開発したのがメタコントロールのパラダイムである。このパラダイムでは一側半球に情報を投入する条件に加えて、同じ情報を左右両半球に同時に投入する条件を必要とする。一側視野の成績パターンと左右同時に呈示された条件での成績パターンを比較し、メタコントロール半球を推測するのである。我々は、右手利き群と左利き手群に対して心的加算課題を実施した。この課題は、1組の漢数字や算用数字が瞬間呈示され被験者に足し算を求めるものであった。Helligeのパラダイムを適用するためには、（1）左右両半球に同時に同じ情報が投入されること、（2）左右視野条件と実験条件の交互作用が見られること、が必要となる。そこで数字対は左視野、右視野、あるいは中央視野に呈示され、また数字対の組み合わせとして、漢数字対（三－七）、算用数字対（2－9）、漢数字・算用数字対（四－6）の3条件が用意された。その結果、左右視野と刺激対条件の間に交互作用が見られ、算用数字対条件においてのみ、利き手群間にラテラリティパターンの差異が認められた。つまり、右手利き群では左半球優位性が、左手利き群では右半球優位性がみられた。利き手群別にメタコントロール半球の分析を行った結果、各群ともメタコントロール半球の存在が示唆された。右手利き群においては中央視野成績パターンと右視野成績パターンが同様であり、左視野成績パターンとは異なるものであった。このことは、右手利き群では左半球が課題をコントロールしていることを示唆している。これに対して左手利き群においては、中央視野成績のパターンと同じパターンを示したのが左視野条件の成績であったことから、右半球が課題をコントロールしていることが推察された。これらの結果は、課題をコントロールする半球は、課題に対して優位な半球となることを示唆している。
In this paper, a definition and a conceptualization of organizational stress were proposed. Stress was defined as a perceived dynamic state about something important for self. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper incorporated with individual responses to the stress, individual coping strategies devised by workers depending on their personality traits and behaviors, and coping ways of management, and the author proposed the strategic methods to reduce or prevent fatigue and sickness due to short-term role overload. Furthermore, this paper criticized the models arguing the importance of individual efforts, and suggested that a managerial system for organizational stress played more important role for the of human resources management.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether leisure activities influence on the cognitive functions in middle aged and elderly people. Eight hundred and twenty rural community residents (age ranged from 39 to 88) participated in the study. They answered a questionnaire regarding 28 leisure activities, (e.g., walking, gardening, handicrafts, and reading) and subjects rated the frequency of the leisure activities on the rating scales ranged from 1 (almost never) to 5 (more than once a week). Five hundred and two of them participated in cognitive tests with their consent. The cognitive tests consisted of 3 kinds of letter fluency tests (Ito et al. 2002), digit cancellation tests (Hatta et al. 2001), and tests of immediate and delayed recall of a 25 word-sentence (Wechsler's Memory Scale). A factor analysis was conducted to explore the interrelationship among leisure activities and correlational analyses were also conducted to examine the relations between leisure activities and cognitive functions that reflect the activities of the prefrontal area. There were positive correlations between some leisure activities (watching video-tapes, listening to music, reading, visiting art galleries, flower arrangement, tea ceremony, calligraphy, traveling, driving) and the cognitive functions. It was suggested that some leisure activities could improve the cognitive functions.
Contemporary psychology hasn't been considered to have the "theory", but guided by the principle of naïve "positivism" or "empiricism." The aim of the present article is to describe the importance of the theoretical studies in modern psychology. One of the reasons that theoretical psychology has never been regarded as a major field of psychology seems psychologists's misunderstanding what the "theory of psychology" is. This article describes first what the "theory of psychology" should include, according to the famous thought experiment "Chinese Room" (Searle, 1980). Second, how theories and facts are related each other in science is discussed following the long history of the research development in physics. It is argued that the "theory" is not directly related to empirical data (fact), but is mediated by "models" that translate the "theory" to be applied to the fact. This is against the intuitive view that theories of science must be directly tested by empirical data. Moreover, this framework delineates how theoretical approach and experimental approach should be related in scientific approach of psychology. The idea of the necessity of theoretical psychology should contribute to education in psychology. Especially, it can provide "formal language" for education of theoretical research of psychology.
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is almost universally used inventory to assess burnout. The MBI defines burnout as a three dimensional syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Efforts have been made toward understanding how various correlates are associated with each of the three dimensions. This paper reviewed the burnout literatures and argued that there are three frameworks for understanding the correlations among the three dimensions. The first framework is the unidimensional model which limits the concept of burnout just to the component of emotional exhaustion. The second framework postulates that there is a sequential progressive order over time, in which the occurrence of one dimension precipitates the development of another dimension. The third framework assumed that certain demand and a deficit of resource leads to burnout and investigated their association with each of the burnout dimension. Based on the review of these three frameworks, the discussion proposed new directions for future research.
This paper is inspired by the works of Alain Touraine in '90. The Sociology in the period of Globalization is confronted with the many critical tasks. The most important problem is the End of Homo Sociologicus that was sociological norm on thinking out the Society and its relation to the Individual. The idea of Homo Sociologicus, at its most extreme, led many to assert that the individual comes to maturity and produces his or her own individuation only through the process of socialization, and insofar as he or she becomes a social being. But the globalization destroyed its foundation. Touraine describes the globalization which is consisted of the de-institutionalization and the desocialization, that is, the disappearance of the social roles, norms and values that were once used to construct the life-world, as the demodernization. Consequently, we must investigate the raison d'être of sociology.
This study examined the effect of a denial of negative information concerning the characteristics of a target person on interpersonal attitudes. More specifically, it investigated whether the denial leads to the revision of both explicit and implicit negative attitude, and whether the degree of the organization of the interpersonal attitude modified the effect of the denial. One hundred and twenty university students participated in the study, and read a negative story of a target person accompanied with a picture of the person. Then, after the manipulations of the organization (high vs. low) of the interpersonal attitude toward the target person and the denial of the negative part of the story (denial vs. no denial), they answered their explicit attitude on the impression rating scales. Furthermore, their implicit attitude toward the target person was measured with an indirect priming paradigm; after presenting a picture (the target person or an unrelated person), the reaction time toward positive and negative words was measured. The recall of the original story was also recorded right after and the after one week of the experiment. The results suggested that the denial of the negative information led to a revision of the explicit attitude but not to a revision of the implicit attitude. It was also suggested that negative information was more dominant in the target person's schema after one week of the experiment. Discussion considered the underlying cognitive mechanism of these results and the implication for the interpersonal and mass communication.
The Minseito cabinet under Hamaguchi came to government in April 1929. Hamaguchi appointed Shidehara as foreign minister and Inoue Junnosuke as finance minister. Hamaguchi carried on the 'internationalist' policy of Shidehara and at the same time he adapted the domestic policy such as lifting the embargo on gold and arranging a rationalization of industry. Hamaguchi started with combining industries and organizing unions. He was making the Japanese economy competitive enough in the international market through mechanization and expansion of productivity. He was trying to seek for an international policy of 'sound finance' by reintroducing the gold standard and was activating Japanese industrialists' trades and business in China. He supported the Japanese economic expansion in China in order to realize the development of domestic industries, the stability and improvement of the people's life. Hamaguchi favored disarmament and took an action over the London naval treaty. The Sumistu-in was against his idea, but he controlled it by force because he had a great support from the public and the Elder Statesman, Prince Saionji. Hamaguchi's purpose at that time was to cut military expenditures and to take on the leadership over internationalism. His vision collapsed after the Wall Street crash of autumn 1929. Hamaguchi was assassinated on the platform at Tokyo railway station in 1930. He recovered to resume his position as prime minister but died the following year.