Characteristics of the mothers, as well as those of the mother-daughter relationship, among eating disordered populations have been discussed extensively in the clinical literature, although there are few empirical studies with clinical or at risk populations, especially in Japan. According to the studies in other countries, mothers of eating disordered girls were themselves more likely to be eating disordered, and exhibited more traditional gender-role attitudes as well as greater concern about their own appearance than mothers of girls who were not eating disordered. The present study used a questionnaire with 7th and 8th grade girls and their mothers to examine whether similar maternal characteristics would be found in a Japanese population. The results of path analyses showed that mothers' traditional gender-role attitudes and greater concern about their own appearance were both significantly related to the mothers' eating disorder tendencies, which was related to the daughters' eating disorder tendencies, by way of socialization about dieting. The way in which mothers' gender-role attitudes may affect the daughters' eating disorder tendencies differed according to daughters' menarcheal status. For premenarcheal girls, the mother's traditional gender-role attitudes affected her own eating disorder tendencies, which affected the daughter's eating disorder tendencies by way of socialization about dieting. In contrast, for postmenarcheal girls, the mother's traditional gender-role attitudes affected socialization about dieting, without being mediated by the mother's own eating disorder tendencies. For postmenarcheal girls, the mother's eating disorder tendencies had little influence upon socialization about dieting, suggesting the relative importance of other correlates upon the daughter's eating disorder tendencies. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention of eating problems shared among women across generations.
This study aimed to observe infants' production of pointings during the preverbal vocal period at a nursery school. Participants were four 1-year old children (one boy and three girls). The characteristics on infant production of pointing were classified into seven categories ("a. attention getting", "b. place and direction", "c. naming", "d. demand", "e. question", "f. explanation", "g.imitation"), and of those which were inapplicable to any other categories were classified into the category of "h. others". The main results were as following. First, in the nursery school, the frequency of pointing increased as children developed. Second, by comparing the average frequency of infants' pointing manipulated "in infant-adult (nursery teacher) interaction" and "in peer interaction", the frequency of pointing "in peer interaction" was significantly more than that "in infant-adult interaction". Third, the ratio of infants' pointing, categorized into "f. explaination" was high, both "in infant-adult interaction (36 %)" and "in peer interaction (31 %). Although the ratio of infants' pointing "in infant-adult interaction" was high in "d.demand" (20 %) , and in "e. question" (14 %), the ratio of pointing "in peer interaction" was high in "h. others" (23 %), and in "g.imitation" (17 %). Moreover, the ways of pointing gestures were different among these categories. These findings suggest that children's intention to produce pointing, should be considered to be different, depending on whom they tried to interact (adults and peers). Finally, because there were some distinctions among infants' pointing categorized as "h. others", further categorization was done, and classified into three categories ("instructive pointing", "greeting/confirmation", and "pointing toward imaginative objects").
The role of the facial expression of emotions on face recognition was investigated by analyzing the effects of happy and angry expressions on identity and facial expression recognition memory task. In Experiment 1, facial expressions at encoding and retrieval stages were manipulated by presenting the participants with happy, angry, or neutral faces in an incidental learning condition (rating their friendliness or distinctiveness). Later they were tested for their recognition of the identical persons displaying the same or different expressions (identity recognition task). They were also asked to name the initial expressions on the faces (expression recognition task). Results indicated that happy faces were better recognized than angry faces when presented with different expressions at the encoding stage irrespectively the encoding conditions. In contrast, happy expressions were not correctly responded for expressions at encoding on the expression recognition task. The results of Experiment 2 confirmed that the superiority of happy expression on the identity recognition task. It was concluded that happy expression enhanced the formation of facial memory representations.
We examined the effects of mood on the information processing and on the multiple functions of advertisement. The first experiment hypothesized that positive mood promoted an automatic processing of information and negative mood promoted a controlled processing of information. Moods were induced by asking about happy (positive mood) or unhappy (negative mood) event. Next, participants were presented with the statement advertisement or image advertisement. The results showed that participants in negative mood elaborated the statement advertisement and changed attitude more than participants in positive mood, whereas positive and negative participants presented with image advertisement indicated little attitude change. The second experiment hypothesized that the persuasive effects of image advertisement were depended on the interaction between mood and image relevance to merchandise. Positive or negative mood participants were presented with relevant image advertisement or irrelevant image advertisement. The results showed participants in positive mood indicated more attitude change in irrelevant image advertisement than participants in negative mood, whereas positive and negative mood participants presented with relevant image advertisement indicated little attitude change. Therefore, our results suggest that mood state does not only affect the information processing but also the persuasive effects of information.
This paper analyzes about Uyagan that is the local belief at village of Karimata, Shimajiri in northern Miyako Island and Ogami Island area, Okinawa Prefecture. These area where tells Uyagan, Kamiuta is sung at the service. So it has been handed down orally. The purpose of this paper is to consider the total image of Uyagan especially from the content of the Uyagan and Kamiuta at Karimata area in Miyako Island. The ritual in Uyagan is held by women who stay those areas. God possess special women who service Uyagan. It is the taboo to speak the details out. So the concrete details are not known except those women.
This article examines Bonner Fellers' years in Cairo, Egypt as American Military Attaché. Although Fellers is relatively well known in his role in advising General Douglas MacArthur in sparing the Japanese Emperor from War Crimes prosecution, his years in Cairo is relatively unknown. Fellers was America's chief intelligence officer in Cairo from Fall 1940 to Summer 1942, a period when his country's President and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill were working closely to create a de facto alliance based on sharing crucial intelligence concerning the Axis Powers. Fellers, ambitious and able, provided keen analysis and observations to his superiors in Washington, D.C. However, his encrypted cables were secretly deciphered by Italy and Germany that served as a crucial factor in Rommel's military successes against Great Britain in North Africa. The so-called "Fellers Affair" is examined in the context of intelligence warfare in Egypt and his rivalry with Joint Chief of Staff George C. Marshall's right-hand man, Dwight Eisenhower. Finally, Fellers' direct appeal to President Roosevelt for augmenting American forces in the Middle East resulted in the latter's decision to pursue that over caution expressed by Marshall and Eisenhower. This and Fellers's relations with Rahman Abdul Azzam Pasha and the Yugoslavian situation were indicative of his strong ambitions and activism, both of which would help fuel his activities in the Pacific under General Douglas MacArthur.
In Study 1, the degrees of penetration and familiarity of false belief on neuroscience, especially brain imaging, among students were surveyed using a questionnaire technique. A total number of 485 students from medical school, school of nurse sciences, school of psychology, and school of informatics were given 20 items and they were requested to evaluate authenticity of the items and familiarity was rated. The results suggested that as familiarity increased, the tendency for participants to regard the item was correct. In Study 2, the question whether false belief on neuroscience can be modified by a usual class lecture was examined. Degrees of the authenticity evaluation and the familiarity of false information between student groups who took the class of neuropsychology and who did not take the class were compared. Results showed a significant difference in many items between the two groups and suggested a possibility of modifiability even by a class lecture.
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between nationalism and civil society. The present hypothesis, which was developed from the theory of civil society, especially Hegel's thought, supposes a mutually dependent relationship between nationalism and civil society: the stronger (weaker) nationalism, the stronger (weaker) civil society and vice versa. On the other hand, its competitive hypothesis supposes a mutually substitute relationship: the stronger (weaker) nationalism, the weaker (stronger) civil society and vice versa. These hypotheses were tested in a survey, in which participants (n = 400) were asked to respond to measurements for a sense of alienation from four communities (family, organization, region, and state). All the items for the measurements were developed based on Hegel's descriptions about alienation from communities. The obtained data showed that the sense of alienation from each community was positively related with each other. This result gave supports to the interdependent relationship hypothesis. The implication of the result was discussed.
The authors' past study focused on the effects of reading classic books such as, "Representative Men of Japan" written by Kanzo Uchimura for reducing one's vulgar disposition. The experiment study targeting 300 university students suggested that reading the book has an effect of reducing readers' vulgarity of the masses two weeks later when they have finished reading the book. In this study, a follow-up survey was conducted to explore the continued effects from reading the book of reducing the vulgarity of the masses. The data of the follow-up survey indicated that the continued effects were not verified for "everyone" three months after their reading the book. Further, factors that affect on the degree of the effects of reading the book were investigated. As a result, the book's effects of reducing readers' vulgarity of the masses were found to significantly depend on disciplines or environment in their childhood. The survey results also identified that participants who read "Representative Men of Japan" tend more to recommend the book to others. It means reading "Representative Men of Japan" might have relevant effects to prevent massification of human being.