We report a clinical analysis of sarcoidosis patients complicated by collagen diseases and treated for the last 15 years in Gunma University Hospital. One hundred and sixteen patients with sarcoidosis were treated, and 10 patients of them (8.6%) had collagen disease complications. All the patients were female. Coexisting collagen diseases were Sjögren’s syndrome in 4 patients, systemic lupus erythematodes in 2, and dermatomyositis with Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclelosis with polymyositis, polymyositis and dermatomyositis each in one. In 4 of the patients, one disease had preceded the other disease by a period ranging from 6 to 30 years, with an average of 14 years. In the other 6 patients, both diseases were diagnosed at the same time. It has been reported that the coexistence of collagen disease and sarcoidosis is not so rare and that positive antinuclear antibodies are frequently found in sarcoidsis patients. Autoimmune diseases, including collagen diseases, should be carefully considered in sarcoidosis patients.
The applied weight of an ointment or cream can influence its effects. In addition, the bases and formulations of an ointment or cream can have an impact on the applied weight. However, little is known about the tem perature effects on the applied weight, and few investigations of this effect have been reported. In order to evaluate the relationship between temperature and stretchiness or applied weight, we conducted experiments at 1°C or 30°C using a spread meter and healthy subjects. The stretchiness of oleaginous ointment bases was significantly increased by 2 times with a rise of temperature from 1°C to 30°C, and the yield values were decreased dramatically. The applied weights of oleaginous ointment bases were increased about 2 times with the rise of temperature. The stretchiness and applied weights of water-in-oil (W/O)-type emulsion bases were increased as well. In contrast, the yield values of water-soluble ointment bases and oil-in-water-type emulsion bases were decreased slightly, and applied weights were not changed. These results suggest that we should consider the change of stretchiness and applied weights of oleaginous ointment bases and W/O-type emulsion bases with changes in temperature in compliance instructions.
There were 70 documented cases (64 patients) of herpes zoster among HIV-1 infected patients at the Dermatology Clinic and the Laboratory Medicine Department at the Tokyo Medical Hospital between May, 2004 and December, 2008. These cases accounted for 3.3% of all herpes zoster patients. The majority of the cases were male (94.3%) in their 20s and the 30s, with the mean age of 32.6 years. The peak CD4 positive T cell count at a zoster event was in the 300s, and there were no differences between patients who received HAART and those who did not. Of the patients, 18.8% had experienced recurrent zoster events. According to previous studies in Japan, the severity of zoster events in HIV-1 infected patients is typically greater than in non-infected patients. However, our analysis showed that there were no significant differences between HIV-1 infected patients and non-infected patients in terms of the severity of herpes zoster events.