In the Russian Federation the delivery of social services to deserving population groups is mostly the responsibility of local governments. Municipal agencies hold a monopoly position in delivering publicly funded services. One way to inject competition into the delivery system is for local government to hold competitions to contract for social service delivery. The competitions can be open to nonprofit organizations (NGOs), some of which have been providing assistance in recent years to needy individuals and families. A critical question is the readiness of NGOs to serve as contracted providers. This paper reports the results of an assessment of the current practices of 13 NGOs in delivering various types of social services. We find that the range of capability of Russian nonprofit organizations engaged in providing such services is indeed wide. We confirmed the relatively high level of professionalism in those NGOs that had received substantial technical and financial assistance from international organizations with similar missions. Additionally, among the nine “grass roots” NGOs in the sample, one-quarter appears to have the capacity to deliver services under contracts to local governments. A clear need for training in the process of service delivery was identified. An expansion in donor-supported training for the many NGOs engaged in these activities is recommended beyond the areas of start-up, governance, networking, and fund raising for which training is now abundant to ways to increase the efficiency and professionalism of service delivery.
It is clear that in the Green Olympic Bid campaign, the Chinese government changed its attitude of indifference to NGOs, even seeking active communication and cooperation with them. Moreover this cooperation was reported favorably by the government-controlled mass media. If this means that the government has truly changed or is changing its attitude and policy towards NGOs, the question is why? If this is not the case, then the question concerns the nature of the current relationship and what that means for Chinese NGOs. Through consideration of why the government actively co-opted NGOs into the Green Olympic Bid campaign as well as how NGOs were rewarded by joining this campaign, this paper finds that the government wanted the symbolic value of these NGOs to improve the international legitimacy of the Olympic bid. As such, the relationship between the government and NGOs has not basically changed through this process. However, joining government-led project can bring NGOs greater opportunity for development, which can benefit the growth of NGOs and promote the overall development of civil society in China.
Corporate philanthropy should be seen as social investment rather than charity, and should be linked to an enhancement of corporate value. To that end, companies must rebuild their social investment mission and reposition it clearly from a management perspective. Strategies must be put in place to efficiently and effectively realize a return on social investments. This paper presents innovative methods for corporate philanthropy reform on the basis of a balanced scorecard approach to evaluate business performance, which sets the stage for the emergence of a succession of far-sighted companies that have undertaken a paradigm shift in their strategies towards corporate philanthropy.
This paper examines the social roles of universities, and their relationships and partnerships with communities, specifically community-based nonprofit organizations, through literature review and examples from the U.S. and Japan. Recently, universities have rediscovered the importance of their service mission, and started to invest in university-community partnerships (UCPs), with the focus on service learning. Universities and communities can mutually benefit through partnerships both short- and long-term: UCPs lead to more civic engagement by universities and universities become true social institutions. An integrated and balanced approach of UCPs is proposed on the basis of components of institutional commitment and efficient and effective use of an intermediary organization.