In Japan, the “Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) ” was developed and periodically revised as the national dietary standard, which was similar to the USʼs 10th revision of RDA published in 1991. In 1997 US and Canada jointly published the report of DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes), in which individual risk for inadequacy of nutrient intakes was indicated by the combination of EAR (estimated average requirement) and RDA. These values assumed a normal distribution in the requirement of nutrients. Furthermore, a set of indicators, including AI (adequate intake) and UL (tolerable upper intake level), were proposed for a more appropriate use of the references. This concept was introduced in Japan and partly adopted in “The 6th Revised RDA for Japanese – Dietary Reference Intakes (1999)”, but was not complete. In the next revision of the “Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2005)” , almost all the concepts of the DRIs were adopted, and additionally the “Tentative Dietary Goal for Preventing Lifestyle-related Diseases (DG)” was included in a set of new indicators. The basic framework in the 2005 version has been succeeded to the latest 2020 version, while only some small modifications, such as EER (estimated energy requirement) have been made. During the almost 20 years since the DRIs was proposed, some misuse has been reported in the US, which is also the challenge in Japan.