InN thin films having electrochromic properties were prepared by activating reactive evaporation (ARE). Indium and nitrogen concentration in the film was 50 at% and 30-45 at%. Oxygen was contained in films at 5-20 at%. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) revealed that oxygen existed as In2O3, In(OH)3 and H2O. The effect of oxygen on the electrochromic properties of InN films was studied, and InN films with In2O3 alone did not show electrochromicity. In(OH)3 and H2O are important in demonstrating electrochromicity.
Deposition of Au-Cu alloy film by RF ion plating was applied to jewelry, Au-Cu alloys were used as the single evaporation source. We studied the effect of physical and chemical characteristics on formed films of evaporation time, evaluation of color, corrosion, and abrasion resistance, and change in the chemical composition of alloy films. The Au 70wt%-Cu 30wt% alloys were chosen to the most suitable alloy for the source. We found that a substrate temperature of 200°C, argon gas pressure of 2×10-2Pa, bias voltage of -500V, and 45 minutes for plating process a successful result for jewelry. Intermetallic compound AuCu3 was found in the deposited film from Au 50wt%-Cu 50wt% by XRD. It lowered abrasion resistance markedly. Film abrasion resistance was increased by vacuum heating at 450°C for 1hour.
A study of the effects of aluminum ions added as Al2(SO4)3 on average internal tensile stress in nickel deposits electroplated from a Watts bath of pH3.0 enabled us to detect variations in elastic deformation in deposits in situ using a resistance wire strain gauge on the reverse side of a copper electrode. Aluminum ions close to the electrode surface changed to aluminum hydroxide due to increased solution pH during nickel electroplating with hydrogen evolution. This is included in deposits as aluminum oxide and aluminum hydroxide. With increasing Al2(SO4)3 concentration, total aluminum oxide and aluminum hydroxide in deposits increased and average internal tensile stress in deposits rose. Internal tensile stress rose markedly at ca. 2.5mM Al2(SO4)3, causing numerous cracks on the surface of nickel deposits at a concentration of 5.0mM Al2(SO4)3. The dependence of aluminum oxide and aluminum hydroxide content on Al2(SO4)3 concentration showed that these two compounds enhanced internal tensile stress in nickel deposits.
To develop a highly efficient polymer inhibitor on corrosion of mild steel in cooling water. poly (acrylate-co-caffeylamide) [P(AA/CAm)n, n=1-7], poly (acrylate-co-caffeic acid) [P(AA/CA)], and poly (acrylate-co-cinnamamide) [P(AA/CiAm)] were synthesized under adsorption control by a polymer carboxyl group and deoxygenation by polyphenol. Inhibition of corrosion and scale deposition were studeid. In a solution with a low ionic species concentration, P(AA/CAm)2 and P(AA/CiAm) showed a high corrosion inhibition over a wide range of additive concentrations due to polymer adsorption on the steel surface. In a solution with a high ionic species concentration, P(AA/CAm)4 and P(AA/CA) had improved corrosion inhibition at the addition of low inhibitor concentration and decreased inhibition of scale deposition due to scale retention and steel surface adsorption by polymers.