This paper describes an intelligent visual system for evaluating barrel-finished surfaces using a fuzzy-neural network. If the features of image processing are recognized by the vision system and fuzzy-neural network, the degree of surface roughness, brilliance, and/or types of barrel-finishing conditions will be clarified in relation to surface image data and the surface integrity of barrel-finished surfaces is cleared by correlation analyses between features of surface image processing data The objectives of the paper are to analyze the image of barrel-finished surfaces using both texture and color texture analyses, and to construct a fuzzy-neural network system able to evaluate surface roughness, brilliance and types of finishing. It was found that the features of image data of barrel-finished surfaces is decided by texture analyses. Results show it is possible to construct a fuzzy-neural network system composed of surface image features as input data and the degree of surface roughness, brilliance, and/or types of finishing as output data.
TiN films were prepared on a polycarbonate substrate by the arc ion plating method. Two types of bias generators (d c and r f.) were used to apply voltage to the substrate. The optimum N2 gas pressure was very low (2×10-3 Torr) and the optimum d c bias voltage was -400V, when a d c bias generator was used. But many cracks were observed in the films. We were able to prepare a non-cracked, lustrous, gold-color TiN film when an r f self bias voltage of -100V was applied and Ti was undercoated on the substrate before deposition of TiN film.
Deposition of black-colored films whose mayor component is gold using the RF ion plating method was investigated, and the results were evaluated. Au-Al alloys were used as the evaporation source material. AlN was first produced by the reactive ion plating method using nitrogen gas as the reactive gas and the evaporation conditions of Au and AlN composite black films were then studied. Black Au-AlN composite films with high corrosion resistance were obtained on the substrate under conditions of an RF power of 150W, a bias voltage of 500V and an evaporation rate of 36nm/min. To examine the potential for commercial use, the same lustrous black composite films were produced on post earrings (K18 and K14) under the same conditions as mentioned above. These results open up new possibilities for design of ornaments and production of value-added goods.
A series of AlN thin films was synthesized on Al-25mass%Mg substrate under different Ar pressures from 007 to 1.3Pa using rf magnetron sputtering. The effects of Ar pressure on the corrosion protection in a 5mass%NaCl solution and structural properties were studied. As Ar pressure was increased above 027Pa, the corrosion resistance of the AlN-coated Al-Mg alloy was significantly improved. Residual film stress was compressive under low Ar pressures, which decreased as Ar pressure increased and turned tensile at high Ar pressures. An obvious correlation was observed between the corrosion protection property and residual stress. A coating with low residual stress was superior in corrosion protection to a coating with high compressive residual stress. The change of the corrosion protection property is discussed in connection with the residual stress of the sputtered film. The origin of the residual stress in the AlN coating is also discussed from the viewpoint of the energy change in sputtered particles.
Chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond has been utilized in diamond brazed cutting tools. Generally, due to the difficulty in producing thick CVD diamond, the tools have conventionally been produced by brazing a diamond film about 300μm in thickness on a cemented carbide used as the base metal for the cutting tool. The production process for such tools is very complex due to the many production steps involved. A new method in which 200∼300μm thick CVD diamond can be directly synthesized on the cemented carbide has been developed in order to simplify this process. The cemented carbide is cut off by wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) in advance and grid notches are introduced on the carbide by YAG laser beam irradiation making the production of a thick diamond film possible. The amount of flank wear on a diamond coated tool produced by this method was less than 1/5 of that on a diamond sintered tool. The tool also showed excellent cutting performance, compared with tools produced by the conventional method.
Mild steel substrates were treated by C-ion or N-ion implantation, and by dynamic ion mixing in which such implantations were carried out simultaneously with Ti-deposition. Some substrates were implanted with B-ions before treatments to ascertain the location of the original substrate surface. Compositional depth profiles of the surface regions were obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and their structures were determined by thin-film X-ray diffractometry. C-ion or N-ion implantation cannot form a μm-thick C-Fe or N-Fe mixed layer even if the ion dose is increased to the order of 1018ions/cm2. With simultaneous low-rate Ti-deposition, however, the same ion implantation causes an outward transport of substrate Fe atoms, resulting in the formation of a 1-15μm-thick C-Fe or N-Fe mixed layer at around 100°C. It is thought that some of the Fe atoms sputtered by the ion implantation are trapped by the depositing Ti atoms, causing the outward transport of the substrate Fe atoms.
Electroless Fe-Ni alloy (20Fe-80Ni permalloy) deposition has been studied in two types of solution containing either sodium hypophosphite (NaPH2O2) or dimethylamine borane (DMAB) as a reducing agent and trisodium citrate as a complexing agent. The partial current densities of Ni and Fe in the alloys electrodeposited at constant potentials showed that less noble Fe exhibited strongly induced codeposition. The alloy deposition rate was obtained both by the superposition of anodic and cathodic partial polarization curves in each solution of 02 for the FN ratio (Fe2+/(Fe2++Ni2+)) and by Tafel extrapolation in the total polarization curves of the complete electroless plating solution. The deposition rate determined by the weight gain in the DMAB plating bath was consistent with those obtained by electrochemical polarization measurements. The effect of pH and the metallic ion concentration ratio, i e, the FN ratio, of NaPH2O2 and DMAB plating bath on the Fe content in alloys and the deposition rate was examined. The optimum condition for obtaining the alloy in the DMAB plating bath was determined to be pH 95-10 at an FN ratio of 03. The Fe content of NaPH2O2 plating bath was about 10% at an FN ratio of 02-06, which is low compared to the monotonically increased 45% at an FN ratio of 08 of DMAB plating bath. These results suggest that the phosphorous element in the reducing agent retards Fe deposition. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the deposits maintained -10V for 1h exhibited three distinct 111, 200, and 220 peaks. The electroless plating deposit showed the preferred orientation of the 111 peak accompanying a broadening peak.
Cobalt was electrodeposited on copper substrate from sulfate, sulfate plus boric acid, sulfamate and chloride baths with a pH of 20-50. Deposits were prepared over a temperature range of 20-80°C. Crystalline orientation was determined by the X-ray diffraction method. The cobalt deposits from the sulfate plus boric acid and chloride baths exhibited strong (100) preferred orientation at the low overpotentials and strong (110) preferred orientation at the high overpotentials. This preferred orientation of the deposits from the sulfate plus boric acid and chloride baths is not consistent with the crystalline orientations predicted by Pangarov using the two dimensional platelets model. However, the deposits from the sulfate, sulfamate and part sulfate plus boric acid baths exhibited (002) preferred orientation over a wide range of plating conditions. The case in forming a direction of magnetization perpendicular to the substrate may possibly facilitate preparation of perpendicular magnetic recording media. The (002) preferred orientation affinity was related to the appearance of a shoulder in the polarization curves in the vicinity of the immersion potential and a subsequent abrupt increase in current, which are attributable to facile crystal formation and growth.
In this paper, the anodizing of aluminum was investigated using isopropanolamine (1-amino-2-propanol) for comparison with ethanolamine and choline. Studies were conducted to determine the optimum bath compositions for anodizing aluminum in isopropanolamine alkaline baths involving ammonium fluoride and organic acid salts (HCOONH4, CH3COONH4, (NH4)2C2O4, (NH4)2C4H4O6, (NH4)3C6H5O7, (CH2)4(COONH4)2). Uniform films were formed when anodizing in baths containing organic acid salts, but non-uniform films were formed in baths without these additives. The thickest film (about 8μm) was formed in a bath containing ammonium acetate and ammonium tartrate by anodizing for 30min at 20°C with a current density of 1A/dm2. Films formed in baths containing ammonium tartrate or tri-ammonium citrate were the hardest (Marten's scratch hardness test, load 50gf, about 19) while films formed in baths containing tri-ammonium citrate or ammonium adipate showed lower corrosion resistance. SEM observation found that films prepared in baths containing monocarboxylic acids salts had a few pores about 25-40nm in diameter in addition to those with diameters of 15-20nm, while these prepared in baths containing other organic acid salts had pores about with diameters of 30-40nm.
The applicability of botanical abrasives to metallic materials was examined by subjecting various metal pieces to barrel polishing with a walnut shell botanical abrasive or a walnut shell-based alumina-composite botanical abrasive. The alumina-composite abrasive was prepared by mixing walnut shell with alumina powder, aliphatic acid, mineral oil, surfactant, and water. 7 kinds of metals were used: aluminum, copper, brass, aluminum alloy, duralumin, stainless steel, and titanium alloy. The applicability of botanical abrasives to metallic materials was verified, with metals with lower hardness or higher density polished more easily. The alumina-composite botanical abrasive was superior to the walnut shell botanical abrasive in polishing performance. The mechanism of barrel polishing is discussed on the basis of the obtained results.
A novel method was developed for preparation of white fine powders coated with ATO. A fine powder of rutile type TiO2 was homogeneously coated with a mixed hydroxide film of ATO composition by simultaneous adding an acidified metal chlorides solution and an alkaline solution to maintain the suspension pH at definite levels in either a single stage or double stages at 343K. The pH range applicable to hydrolysis of metal chloride solutions of ATO composition onto substrate powder is far wider than with ITO coating. Heating of the resulting powders at 923K or above is necessary to attain electro-conductivity. Increasing the weight ratio of the Sb/SnO2 sharply decreases the specific resistance, which then reaches an almost constant value at Sb/SnO2 weight ratios above 016. Increasing the Sb/SnO2 weight ratio also causes color changes in the product, with L and b values decreasing almost linearly with the Sb/SnO2 weight ratio. A low hydrolysis pH results in better electro-conductivity of the final product.
From the aspect of actual use of electro-conductive powders in polymers, the color and dispersibility of ATO-coated TiO2 powders are important characteristics in addition to electro-conductivity. To investigate how to best meet these requirements, the roles of various factors, such as the Sb/SnO2 weight ratio, the double coating ratio during the hydrolysis step, adjustment of pH, duration of PC dispersion, and degrees of pulverization were experimentally examined. The color and electro-conductivity of ATO-coated powders can be controlled to some extent by selecting a suitable Sb/SnO2 weight ratio as well as by adjusting the pH. To obtain powders of high whiteness, it is desirable to increase the Na2O content in ATO-coated powders. The dispersibility of electro-conductive powders in polymer and the surface resistivity of the resulting composite can be easily adjusted by using sodium hydroxide for the hydrolysis of an acidified mixture of metal chlorides in a solution of ATO composition. Hydrolysis at low pH benefits low surface resistivity, while hydrolysis at a high pH value results in superior dispersibility.