Intracellular labile iron is an iron species which is not or weakly bound to proteins and depicts an important effect on homeostatic regulation in cells. An excess or deficiency of iron can cause oxidative damage to key cellular biomolecules. The behavior and concentrations of labile iron are difficult to monitor, but the specific redox state of the Fe ions is relevant to the physiological and pathological properties that we would like to study. We have developed a series of turn-on type fluorescent probes that are highly selective to the labile Fe(II) ions, and we have tested their applications to cellular level imaging. These probes are based on N-oxide chemistry with a range of fluorophores that depict optimal performance for specific applications. Herein, I review the recent progress of our research and discuss prospects for future work to understand the relation between intracellular ion and oxidative stress.
Laminin, a major basement membrane protein, comprises three subunit chains: α, β, and γ chains. Among these chains, only the laminin α chain is capable of signaling via laminin receptors. Although laminin isoforms containing the α5 chain were reported to be the first laminin produced during rat anterior pituitary gland development, the functions of these isoforms are unknown. We used immunohistochemical techniques to localize the laminin α5 chain and its specific receptor, basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM), in fetal and adult pituitary gland. Laminin α5 chain immunoreactivity was observed in the basement membrane of the primordial adenohypophysis at embryonic days 12.5 to 19.5. Double immunostaining showed that BCAM was present and co-localized with the laminin α5 chain in the tissue. Quantitative analysis showed that the laminin α5 chain and BCAM were expressed in the anterior pituitary gland during postnatal development and in adulthood (postnatal day 60). In the adult gland, co-localization of the laminin α5 chain and BCAM was observed, and BCAM was detected in both the folliculo-stellate cells and endothelial cells. These results suggest that laminin α5 chain signaling via BCAM occurs in both the fetal adenohypophysis and adult anterior pituitary gland.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the organization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers in the visual cortex of the microbat, using standard immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. ChAT-IR fibers were distributed throughout all layers of the visual cortex, with the highest density in layer III and the lowest density in layer I. However, no ChAT-IR cells were found in the microbat visual cortex. ChAT-IR fibers were classified into two types: small and large varicose fibers. Previously identified sources of cholinergic fibers in the mammalian visual cortex, the nucleus of the diagonal band, the substantia innominata, and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis, all contained strongly labeled ChAT-IR cells in the microbat. The average diameter of ChAT-IR cells in the nucleus of the diagonal band, the substantia innominata, and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was 16.12 μm, 13.37 μm, and 13.90 μm, respectively. Our double-labeling study with ChAT and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and triple labeling with ChAT, GABA, and post synaptic density 95 (PSD-95), suggest that some ChAT-IR fibers make contact with GABAergic cells in the microbat visual cortex. Our results should provide a better understanding of the nocturnal bat visual system.